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"It pleased God the Wobd to unite the created Flesh which is of Us 
without blemish unto Himself: therefore It is adored, with God the Word, 
inasmuch as He hath deified It." — Anon. ap. Chrys., ed. Sav., vi. 962. 

" Grant, O LoED, that in reading Thy Holy Word, I may never prefer my 
private sentiments before those of the Church in the purely ancient times of 
Christianity." — Bishop Wilson, Sacra Privata, p. 135, ed. 1853. 







t. Lord Jesus Cheist, the same yesterday, to-day, and 
for ever. 

^7. Preserve us from being carried about with divers and strange 

Almighty, everliving Father, "Who hast promised unto Thy 
faithful people life by Thine Incarnate Son, even as He liveth by 
Thee ; Grant unto us all, and especially to our Bishops and Pastors, 
and to those whom Thy Providence hath in any wise entrusted with 
the treasure of Thy holy doctrine amongst us, Thy good Spirit, 
always so to believe and understand, to feel and firmly to hold, to 
speak and to think, concerning the Mystery of the Communion of 
Thy Son's Body and Blood, as shall be well-pleasing to Thee, and 
profitiible to our souls; through the same our Lord Jesus Christ, 
"Who liveth and reignetb with Thee in the unity of the same Spirit, 
One God, world without end. Amen. 


I WISH here to say a few words, by way of explaining why 
this little book reappears with only such slight changes, as 
will be found on comparing the present with the First 

Besides correcting a few oversights, — more, however, and 
less excusable than I could have wished, — those changes are 
mostly confined to that portion of the work which deals with 
the intention of the final revisers of the Prayer-book ; on 
which point, as far as I have gone hitherto, all additional 
researches have tended only to strengthen our case. 

I could not be without misgivings, when I found that 
some of those, whona I am bound on all accounts deeply to 
respect, thought the treatise incorrect in reasoning, and 
(what indeed I should most exceedingly deprecate) its 
conclusions, if not its general spirit, alien to those of the 
English Church. 

I have therefore re-considered it to the best of my leisure 
and ability; and can only hope that it is not mere self- 
deceit which makes me feel unable to plead guilty to either 
of these very serious charges. 

It has been said that the two first chapters of the Essay 
are irrelevant, — that they proceed on an ignoratio elenchi, — 
because they do not, it is conceived, of themselves prove, that 
our Lord's Person is to be adored as present in the Eucha- 


rist by a Real Presence of His Body and Blood, — thq In- 
ward Part of that Sacrament. Waiving the question how far 
the negative is correct, the places there alleged will not, 
I imagine, seem irrelevant, if taken together they constitute 
a reasonable presumption in favour of that Presence, and the 
worship resulting from it : just as the fact, that everywhere in 
the Holy Scriptures we are encouraged to pay all honour and 
devotion to our Lord, and nowhere warned against excess in 
so doing, would constitute a strong presumption in favour of 
His proper Godhead, though there were no express texts to 
assert it; and is a strong reason for interpreting doubtful 
texts and ambiguous sayings of the Church in the higher 
rather than in the lower sense concerning Him. This is, 
indeed, all that those two first chapters profess^j and if 
they do carry us so far, I cannot allow that they are irrele- 
vant to the main argument; which, in this aspect, may be 
stated thus : — 

If the general presumption from Scripture and from Natu- 
ral Piety be in favour of Eucharistical Adoration, then doubt- 
ful passages in Scripture, in Fathers and Liturgies, and in 
our own Formularies, should be construed in that sense. 
But such presumption does exist, unquestionably, to a very 
great amount. Therefore such should be our rule of inter- 

Proceeding to Christian Antiquity, the treatise alleges 
certain undeniable facts. 1. Writers of high credit in the 
fourth and fifth centuries affirm it to have been the custom 
of the whole Church in their time to worship in the Eucha- 
rist the Flesh which Christ took of the Virgin Mary. 2. 
They mention it as a primitive universal tradition, 3. They 
account for it by the Incarnation, and by the Real Spiritual 
Presence in the Sacrament. 4. The Christian world, during 

* See the last section of chap, ii. 


the whole time of which that worship is affirmed, had with 
one voice, both in Church and out of Church, been declaring 
its faith in such a Presence as no man could believe without 
adoring''. (This I do not profess to demonstrate, but accept 
it as demonstrated by Dr. Pusey and others.) So that the 
historical statement is just what one might expect from the 
doctrinal : and there is nothing in antiquity to contradict 
either of them ; and very much, as we have seen, both in 
Scripture and in man's natural heart, to bespeak our favour- 
able acceptance of them. 

It is thought, however, that men may safely disregard the 
historical evidence to the fact of Eucharistical Adoration, (a.) 
because, as here exhibited, it is comprised in only four or five 
passages ; or, (/8.) because these passages are referred to by 
Roman Catholics for the same purpose : and as to the doc- 
trinal statements of the first five centuries, concurring as 
they do entirely with the historical testimonies, it is by 
some replied, (7.) that the Fathers and Liturgies teach a 
Virtual Presence but Real Absence of the Body and Blood of 
Christ : by others, not so many, (S.) that there is indeed full 
testimony to the Presence, but that the worship does not 
follow, seeing that His Body and Blood may be present apart 
from His Divine Person, (e.) Cases (and they are very 
numerous) to which neither of these statements can be 
made to apply, are presently disposed of with the remark. 
That the Ancients were writing rhetorically, not theologi- 
cally, and would have expressed themselves otherwise had 

'' At least iu heart ; for I have practise, though it may be with some- 
stated in the outset of the argument, thing of ignorance or indistinctness, 
and I hope it will be borne in mind No need to start back, as if one were 
all along, that nothing external is teaching some new thing, instead of 
necessarily implied ; nothing indeed only helping Christians to approve to 
new or strange, nor more than pious tlicir own judguients what thoy have 
Church people (unless they have been always felt devoutly iu their hearts, 
embarrassed by theories) habitually 


they been aware of the errors which should one day 
arise in the Church, On each of these solutions I will 
say a few words, just to indicate why they do not appear 

(a.) To a public matter of fact, such as the custom of 
Adoration, four or five contemporary witnesses, circum- 
stanced as those Fathers were, would be held by most his- 
torians amply sufficient; unless there were strong counter 
evidence, or an overpowering degree of intrinsic improba- 
bility in their statements ; neither of which can here be 
alleged. All that has been said comes to, "There might 
have been more evidence than there is." 

(yS.) A moment's thought will shew that the mere use 
of a doctrine or an interpretation by the Roman Catholics is 
no reason why we should reject it ; unless we are prepared 
to reject all points in our common Creed, which they prove, 
as we do, by Scripture and Antiquity. 

(7.) The question between a Real and Virtual Presence 
can only be decided (as far as it depends on Ancient Consent) 
by a thorough critical induction of passages. For the 
groundwork of such a process, and something more, a person 
may well avail himself of Dr. Pusey's work above mentioned ; 
and the Liturgies, which do not enter into Dr. Pusey's plan, 
are happily being made accessible through the series in 
course of publication by Mr. Neale. To these and other 
like helps the readers of this Essay are referred : the Essay 
itself, taking generally the doctrine of the Real Presence for 
granted, tries to illustrate and enforce from it, and from the 
Prayer-book which teaches it, the moral and devotional duty 
of Adoration. I have used advisedly the term " Virtual 
Presence but Real Absence," believing the two phrases to be 
so connected, that they who limit themselves to the former 
do in effect teach the latter, however many of them may 
shrink from owning it to themselves ; thereby giving a 


blessed token that their loving hearts believe more than 
their preoccupied reason discerns in this miracle of mercy. 
" They feel that they are happier than they know." But 
this does not hinder the ill effect of such inadequate 
doctrine upon the average sort of those who teach and 
hear it. 

In order to maintain their view, they are obliged to make 
out that those sayings of the Fathers, comparatively very few, 
which seem to deny the Real Presence, are the staple of the 
whole ancient doctrine. The Eucharistical thoughts and 
words of the great theologians, the very Anaphora of the 
primitive Liturgies, are to be toned down till they are 
in unison with that one saying of S. Augustine, " Sacra- 
ments, from their resemblance to the things of which they 
are the Sacraments, receive for the most part the names even 
of the things themselves ;" and accordingly, whenever our 
Lord's Body and Blood is so spoken of as to imply a Real 
Presence, we are to understand it, if we can, of the outward 
sign only, called by the name of the Inward Part : which 
appears to me no more reasonable than for a Socinian to 
insist upon such a text as " I have made thee a God to 
Pharaoh,'* by way of warrant for explaining away all the 
declarations of our Lord's proper Divinity. It is a sad 
habit of thought for a theologian to train himself up in, — 
that of instinctively adopting, out of various expositions, the 
most earthly and least supernatural. The least harm that 
can be said of it is, that it is just contrary to what we should 
have looked for from the known analogies of God's suc- 
cessive dispensations ; it is more in harmony with Jewish 
than with Christian interpretations of the Old Testament. 
I fear that the Church is too likely to experience more 
and more of this. 

(8.) In the face of such a tendency on the one hand, and 
of the pressure from Rome on the other, it is neither sur- 


prising nor uninstructive to find persons learned in the 
Liturgies especially, unable to hide their eyes from the 
unquestionable and unquestioning acknowledgment of a 
Real Presence there every where to be found, but equally 
unable to reconcile themselves to the inevitable corollary of 
that tenet, Adoration. And so they are driven, as I have 
said, to imagine such a Real Presence of our Lord's crucified 
Body and Blood shed, as shall not involve a peculiar Pre- 
sence of His Divine Person. An imagination which every 
one, who will consider the force of the word dBcaiperos in 
Church decrees on our Lord's Incarnation, will allow to be 
untenable, since in logical consequence it could not stop 
short of plain Nestorianism. 

(e.) There remains the common and popular allegation, 
that the Fathers (to whom must be added the compilers of 
the Liturgies) spoke rhetorically, not exactly, and would not 
have so taught had they known what was coming. It is not 
speaking too strongly to say, that this statement, in order to 
be effectual, must dispose of nearly the whole of what An- 
tiquity has left us on the subject. Applied on such a scale, 
it sounds (I do not say is meant to be) very disparaging to 
the Fathers and to their authority. In itself it is most im- 
probable. Considering the endless variety of individuals and 
of circumstances, comprehended in the one term, Christian 
Antiquity, it was very unlikely that with one consent, being 
left to themselves, all Churches and all writers should err in 
the same direction — by over-statement. 

Compare, in this point of view, the patristical remains 
with the series of our own standard divines since the 
Reformation. You will find in those ancients little or 
nothing, as among us on this topic, of variety arising from 
school or section, — from the fancy, temper, or feelings of 
the several men. The plain inference is, that the Church, 
they thought, had settled the point for them. 


We canDot (as has been alleged) account for this uniform 
tenor of their language, by the supposition that in those 
days there was no tendency to deny or forget the Eeal 
Humanity of our Mediator. For all through those ages, — 
from the Docetse to the Monophy sites, from S. John to the 
Fourth (Ecumenical Council, — the Church had to deal dis- 
tinctly with that particular phase of false doctrine. If the 
idea of a Eeal Substantial Presence does indeed contradict 
the truth of Christ's Body, certainly the times of those 
dreamy Oriental heresies required especial care in the 
Church, not to encourage that idea by glowing language, 
as in S. Chrysostom and the Liturgies. 

And here it must be asked. Have people seriously con- 
sidered what a thing it is to set down the Prayer-books of 
the ancient Church as incorrect vehicles of sacred truth ; 
to separate, in this case, the "Lex Credendi" so entirely 
from the "Lex Supplicandi ?" It is just what gave so great 
offence eight or ten years ago, when the doctrine of Baptism 
was disturbed by the sentence of the Privy Council in a 
certain cause. Is it not indeed somewhat shocking, for a 
person saying his prayers to be told that he is not to under- 
stand them exactly as they speak ? that in the highest act of 
Divine communion, both God's words spoken to him, and 
the words put into his mouth by the Church whereby to 
pour out his devotion to God, are to be taken as it were at a 
discount ? that instead of lifting up his belief and feeling to 
his prayers, the truth requires him to lower his understand- 
ing of the prayers to something else, which ought to be his 
feeling and belief? Yet so it was, according to this hypo- 
thesis, with all Christians who at any time have worshipped 
with the ancient Church in her Liturgies : to say nothing of 
our own. They have had to keep themselves on their guard, 
lest they should be misled by the Formularies in whicji they 
were joining with the whole Church. Would not S. Chryso- 


stom have dismissed such a thought at once with an "A'Tra'ye 
— "away with it — it cannot be'=?" 

But the mischief goes even deeper, if possible, than this. 
If on this one doctrine the Fathers and the wliole undivided 
Church, not excepting the great (Ecumenical Councils, are 
to be regarded as habitually overstating the truth,— either 
unadvisedly, in a kind of enthusiasm, or (for so it has been 
stated) advisedly, by way of counteracting the irreverence 
to which heathen converts had been accustomed in cele- 
brating sacrifices, — who shall warrant us that the same 
authorities are to be trusted, even in their general consent, 
on other doctrines and interpretations coming under dis- 
pute ? And what then becomes of the Consensus Patrum, 
the rule of primitive Tradition, hitherto supposed to be 
accepted by our branch of the Church, in contradistinction 
to all developments, as God's special gift for helping us to 
the right and scriptural conclusion on every point needful 
to the integrity of the Gospel of our salvation ? Here is an 
absolute unsettling of the standard of faith, especially as 
between us and Rome. If we should say, " The ancients 
mistook our Lord's meaning when He said, * This is My 
Body;' or however, knowingly or unknowingly, they pro- 
mulgated a mistaken interpretation of it ;" why might not a 
Romanist say the same of " On this Rock I will build My 
Church ? " or of " The fire shall try every man's work V 
why not some Calvinist or Zuinglian of " Ye must be born 
again of water and of the Spirit?" why not some bolder 

<= The same topic has been applied word irpoa<pepofj.ev in the Liturgies 

to the construction of the Scottish must be limited to that particular 

Communion Office : which is supposed moment in the Service in which it 

to negative the Real Presence, be- first occurs : unsuitably, as it seems to 

cause, in common with most of the me, to the natural force of the word 

normal Liturgies of antiquity, it in such a case, and also to the fact 

places the Offering before the Invoca- that the word is relocated again and 

tion. But this argument assumes again after the consecration is tm- 

what ought to be proved, — that the doubtedly completed. 


speculator, of the Nicene Creed itself, or of the luspiratioa 
of the very Scriptures of God ? No language, as it seems to 
me, can exaggerate the evil tendency of all this, especially 
under present circumstances. In itself, though not so in- 
tended, it is far more undutiful than demurring to the 
authority of this or that Anglican divine ; or even (should 
it so chance) of all. For it is disturbing the whole basis of 
the Anglican system; it is cutting our cables and setting 
us all adrift, each one to find his own separate course as 
he may. 

We must claim, therefore, for our mother the Church of 
England, as well as for each of her sons, however unworthy, 
to have whatever is ambiguous in her doctrinal sayings inter- 
preted in the sense most agreeable to primitive Antiquity ; 
Holy Scripture, of course, being paramount over all. And 
we may feel sure that such interpretation, though not, per- 
haps, so put forth as to exclude every other, was intended at 
least to be tolerated within our pale. 

The fourth section of the following Essay is an attempt 
to apply this principle to the Rubric touching Adoration at 
the Holy Communion ; and the drift of the quotations there 
made from Anglican divines, more or less concerned in the 
adoption of that Rubric, is simply to shew that, at the very 
least, they could not have intended to exclude from the 
Church of England and her ministry persons adoring Christ 
as the Inward Part of that Sacrament. This has not always 
been adverted to by objectors. They have cited passages 
from some of the revisers themselves, or from others of like 
authority, really or apparently taking the opposite view, as if 
such citation were fatal to the argument : whereas the most 
that can be inferred from both sorts taken together is, that 
the matter was not understood to be positively and expressly 
ruled either way. And the fifth section assigns a reason why 
such " neutrality" (so to call it) should not be regarded as 


damaging our claim to be a true living portion of the Catho- 
lic Church, 

Under these circumstances, I see no disingenuousness iu 
adopting words, from Ridley (e. g.) or any other, to express 
one's own view, without stopping to enquire whether, on 
other occasions, the same author might not have employed 
different or even contradictory language. 

But, indeed, when we have deducted from the testimonies 
of Anglican writers alleged against us, such as in reality touch 
only (1.) Transubstantiation, or (2.) the notion of a gross 
carnal Presence'*, or (3.) the Ubiquity maintained by some 
Lutherans, or (4.) the necessity of believing not only in the 
fact but in the mode of the Real Presence (" whether Trans, 
Sub, Con," &c.), or (5.) the Adoration of the outward Ele- 
ments : and when we have duly weighed those many sayings 
of theirs, both controversial and devotional, which tell entirely 
on our side; the remainder of difficulties we have to deal 
with in that kind will be found in comparison very moderate ; 
nothing, nothing at all, to the work we should have in recon- 
ciling any other doctrine than ours with the Liturgies and 
standard writers of the holy Church from the beginning. 
This is our conviction, only the more confirmed when we 
come to examine carefully the Catena put forth from time to 
time against us. 

But be our Anglican authorities many or few, nay, were 
there (as we have been lately told) no instance at all, since 
the last Review, of an English Divine teaching exactly the 
tenets now so keenly opposed, we should still have a claim 
to be tried, not by any partial development, domestic or 
foreign, but by our own Formularies, inteipreted by Scrip- 
ture and Antiquity. And if those standards did not con- 

•' I may perhaps be excused for tian Year :" " present iu the heart, 
exemplifying this by the expression not in the hands :" cf. S. John vi. 63 ; 
sometimes quoted from the " Chris- 1 Cor. xv. 50. 


(lemn us, wc might justly feel ourselves acquitted before 
God and man. 

Sucli I believe to be our position, such our appeal. I will 
venture to add one word more on the real extent of the 

Unless I am greatly mistaken, the real point at issue in 
most of the controversies which have troubled us all along 
in the Reformed English Church, might be expressed in 
words like the following :— " Is the Church, mingled as we see 
it of good and bad, a supernatural body, separated off from 
the world to live a supernatural life, begun, continued, and 
ended in miracles — miracles as real as any of those which 
befel the Israelites in the wilderness — as real, but infinitely 
more. gracious and awful? or is it only a body providentially 
raised up to hold the best and purest philosophy — helped as 
all good things are from above, but in itself no more than 
the heroical and Divine phase of this present life?'' It is 
plain at first glance which side of this alternative brings with 
it the more intense obligation to holiness, and represents sin 
as " more exceeding sinful ;" — which, therefore, would be 
most hated and disparaged by the Hater of God and good- 
ness : unless, indeed;^ he can persuade those who hold it to 
contradict it in their lives. It is plain also that the doctrine of 
the Ileal Presence in the Holy Eucharist is strictly in unison 
with the supernatural view ; whereas that of a Virtual Pre- 
sence and Real Absence might be accepted by one who 
believed that miracles invisible, as well as visible, have en- 
tirely ceased. 

Here is a prima facie reason why religious and reverent 
persons should be slow to accept that or any other theory 
which interferes with simple acquiescence in the words of 
Scripture and of the ancient Church : and here is also (if 
possible) a yet stronger reason why those who profess such 
acquiescence should be more and more on their guard against 


all that is unmeet for His Presence, — more and more fearful 
as they " enter into the cloud." 

So be it : and may our good Lord forgive whatever may 
have been here or elsewhere written, said, or thought un- 
worthily of this His most holy and inefifable Mystery ; and 
may He grant this to be the last time that the present 
writer shall have to deal with It in a controversial way ! 


Conversion of St. Fault 1859. 





§ 1. The object of this Essay is to allay, and, if possible, Chap. I. 
to quiet, the troublesome thoughts which may at times, and 
now especially, occur to men's minds on this awful subject, 
so as even to disturb them in the highest act of devotion. 
For this purpose it may be well to consider calmly, not 
without deep reverence of heart. First, what Natural Piety 
would suggest ; Secondly, what Holy Scripture may appear 
to sanction ; Thirdly, what the Fathers and Liturgies indi- 
cate to have been the practice of the Primitive Church ; 
Fourthly, what the Church of England enjoins or recom- 

§ 2. For the first : is it not self-evident that, had there 
been no abuse, or error, or extravagance connected with the 
practice, all persons believing and considering the Real Pre- 
sence of our Lord in Holy Communion, in whatever man- 
ner or degree, would in the same manner or degree find it 
impossible not to use special worship? — the inward worship, 
I mean, and adoration of the heart : for that, of course, is 
the main point in question; the posture and mode are se- 
condary and variable, and may and must admit of dispen- 

The simple circumstance of our Lord Christ declaring Him- 
self especially present would, one would think, be enough 
for this. Why do we bow our knees and pray, on first euter- 


2 Three Grounds of special Adoration : 

Chap. I. ing the Lord's house? Why do we feci that during all our 
" continuance there we should be, as it were, prostrating our 
hearts before Him ? Why is it well to breathe a short prayer 
when we begin reading our Bibles, and still as we read to re- 
collect ourselves, and try to go on in the spirit of prayer? 
And so of other holj' exercises : in proportion as they bring 
with them the sense of His peculiar presence^ what can the 
believer do but adore ? I firmly believe that all good Chris- 
tians do so, in the Holy Sacrament most especiallv, what- 
ever embarrassment many of them may unhappily have been 
taught to feel touching the precise mode of their adoration. 

And this may well be one of the greatest consolations, in 
the sad controversies and misunderstandings among which 
our lot is cast. It is as impossible for devout faith, contem- 
plating Christ in this Sacrament, not to adore Him, as it is 
for a loving mother, looking earnestly at her child, not to 
love it. The mother's consciousness of her love, and her 
outward manifestation of it, may vary ; scruples, interrup- 
tions, bewilderments may occur; but there it is in her heart, 
you cannot suppress it. So must there be special ad )ration 
and worship in the heart of every one seriously, believing 
a special, mysterious presence of Christ, God and man, ex- 
pressed by the words, This is My Body. 

§3.1 say a special adoration and worship, over and above 
what a religious man feels upon every occasion which helps 
him to realize, what he always believes, that God is " about 
his path, and about his bed, and spieth out all his ways ;" 
that in Him he "lives, and moves, and has his being." And 
this for very many mysterious and overpowering reasons. I 
will specify three, the most undeniable and irresistible. First, 
the greatness of the benefit offered ; next, its being offered 
and brought home to each one j^crsonally and individually ; 
thirdly, the deep condescension and humiliation on the part 
of Him who offers the benefit. 

§ 4. When Joseph went out over all the land of Egypt, 
" they cried before him. Bow the knee.'' When Moses de- 
livered the first message from God to the Israelites in Egypt, 
concerning their deliverance, and the second message, con- 

The Greatness of the Benefit. 3 

cerning the Passover, "tlie people bowed their heads and Chap. I. 
worshipped." Would it not have been very strange, if, when 
the great promises were realized before their eyes, and they 
actually saw the token of the Lord's Presence, the fire coming 
down and consuming their first oflFering, — that fire which 
continued until it was quenched by their sins before the first 
captivity, — they had scrupled to own His Presence by like 
adoration? They did the same, and much more, when 
Aaron, for the first time after his consecration, "lifted up 
his hand toward the people and blessed them, . . . and the 
glory of the Lord appeared unto all the people. And there 
came a fire out from before the Lord, and consumed upon 
the altar the burnt-off"ering and the fat : which when all the 
people saw, they shouted, and fell on their faces^T There was 
no one at hand to say to them, " Take care : people will call it 
fire-worship." And just in the same way did they acknow- 
ledge the finishing of the old dispensation by the building of 
the Temple. When David had completed his preparations, 
he said to all the congregation, "Now bless the Lord your 
God. And all the congregation blessed the Lord God of 
their fathers, and bowed down their heads, and worshipped 
the Lord and the king^." When, upon the day of consecra- 
tion, " Solomon had made an end of praying, . . . and when all 
the children of Israel saw how the fire came down, and the 
glory of the Lord upon the house, they bowed themselves 
with their faces to the ground upon the pavement, and wor- 
shipped, and praised the Lord'^." The outward act of worship 
was more lowly, and no doubt in religious hearts the inward 
adoration was deeper and more fervent, as the mighty bless- 
ing made its approach more manifest. 

§ 5. So, and much more, in the Christian Church. If we 
kneel, and bow the knees of our hearts, to receive a blessing in 
the Name of the Most High from His earthly representatives. 
Father, Priest, or Bishop, how should we do other than adore 
and fall prostrate, inwardly at least, when the Son of Man 
gives His own appointed token that lie is descending to bless 
us in His own mysterious way ? And with what a blessing ! 
— "the remission of our sins, and all other benefits of His 

• Levit. ix. 22—24. •> 1 Chron. xxix. 20, ' 2 Cliron. vii. 1, 3. 


4 The Nearness of the Blessing 

Chap. I. Passion !" His Flesh, which is meat indeed, and His Blood, 
which is drink indeed ! mutual indwelling between Him and 
us ; we living by Him, as He by the Father ! Surely these are 
gifts, at the very hearing of which, were an Angel to come 
and tell us of them for the first time, we could not choose 
but fall down and worship. And now it is no Angel, but the 
Lord of the Angels, incarnate, coming not only to promise, 
but actually to exhibit and confer them. 

§ 6. Further, the Eucharist is our Saviour coming with 
these unutterable mysteries of blessing, coming with His glo- 
rified Humanity, coming by a peculiar presence of His own 
divine Person, to impart Himself to each one of us separately, 
to impart Himself as truly and as entirely as if there were 
not in the world any but that one to receive Him. And this 
also, namely, the bringing home of God's gifts to the particu- 
lar individual person, has ever been felt by that person, in 
proportion to his faith, as a thrilling call for the most unre- 
served surrender that he could make of himself, his whole 
spirit, soul, and body : i. e. of the most unreserved Worship. 

Look at the saints of God from the beginning. God made 
a covenant with Abraham, He promised to give him a son of 
Sarah, and both times Abraham " fell on his face'^." His 
servant Eliezer " bowed the head and worshipped,^' when he 
found that he was miraculously guided to the person whom 
God had chosen to be Isaac's wife ; and again, when her 
kinsmen had consented to the marriage'^. God descended in 
the cloud on Mount Sinai, and stood with Moses on the 
mount, in token that he had found favour in His sight, and 
He knew him by name : Moses " made haste, and bowed his 
head toward the earth, and worshipped ^" 

The captain of the Lord's host appeared unto Joshua, and 
Joshua "fell on his face to the earth, and did worship §." 
The angel of the Lord went up in the flame of Manoah's 
altar, and Manoah and his wife looked on it, and " fell on 
their faces to the ground •>." When young Samuel was so- 
lemnly " lent to the Lord," Eli performed a solemn act of 
adoration, and Hannah accompanied it with an adoring 

^ Gea. xvii. 3, 17. • Gen. xxiv. 2G, 52. ' Exotl. xxxiv. 8. 

^ Josh. V. 14. ^ Judares xiii. 20. 

a Ground of special Worship. Ea^amples : 5 

hymn'. The Shunammite, when her child had been raised by Chap. I. 
Elisha, "fell at his feet, and bowed herself to the ground V 

§ 7. If we go on to the New Testament, and take a few in- 
stances out of many, we shall still find that it is the nearness 
as well as the greatness of the blessing which prompts the 
special worship or thanksgiving. "Whence is this to me, 
that the mother of my Lord should come unto me ?" " 3Hne 
eyes have seen Thy salvation." The leper worshipped Ilira, 
saying, "Lord, if Thou wilt. Thou canst make me clean. 
And Jesus put forth His hand and touched him.'' On 
His walking on the sea, and quieting the storm, after the 
miracle of the loaves, those who were in the ship came and 
worshipped Him ; so did Jairus, so did the woman with the 
issue of blood : some of them before, some after the mercy 
received. So did the woman of Canaan ; so the father of the 
demoniac, after the transfiguration ; so the poor slave, over- 
whelmed with debt, in the parable of the unmerciful servant ; 
so the mother of Zebedee's children, asking the great wish 
of her heart ; so the holy women, holding Hira by the feet, 
when, being risen, He met them, and said, All hail! so the 
eleven, meeting Him by appointment in Galilee. So S. Peter, 
after the draught of fishes, " fell down at Jesus' knees'," the 
more overpowered by the greatness of the miracle, because 
of the nearness of Him who wrought it; coming into his 
boat, and directing him where and when to cast the net. 
So Magdalene, drawn to Him by His presence in the Phari- 
see's house; so the grateful leper, turning round to Him 
before He was out of sight; and the eager, rich young man. 
So Zaccheus, at His coming into his house; so the blind 
man in S. John ix., " 'Thou hast both seen Him, and it is 
He that talketh with thee' .... and he worshipped Him." 
So S. Thomas, on His specially addressing him ; (for in- 
voking Him as his Lord and God was surely an act of wor- 
ship ;) so Cornelius to S. Peter; so the jailor to S. Paul and 
Silas; so S. John to the Angel. 

§ 8. But three cases there are, which bring out this law of 
devotion (so to call it) in a peculiar and very wonderful way. 

' 1 Sam. 11. 1. ^ 2 Kings iv. 37. Cf. 2 Chron. xx. 18 ; Dau. ii. 19. 

' S. Liike V. 8. 

G The Magnificat has the Tone of Eucharistical Worship. 

^"^'•- ^- To Mary of Bethany it was said^ " The Master is come, and 
calleth for thee ;" for thee in particular, — for thee by name : 
what else can Mary do but hasten and throw herself at 
Jesus' feet? Not so Martha, who had not been sent for. 
And again, either of the same holy woman, or of another 
very like her, we read, " Jesus said unto her, Mary :" it was 
that, His calling her by name, His coraiug to herself per- 
sonally and individually, which had the thrilling eflPect upon 
her. She had heard before that He was risen, — she had 
heard of Him " by the hearing of the ear," — but now she 
heard Him actually speaking, and speaking to her ; and so 
her eye, which before only saw without resting on Him, came 
clearly to discern Him. It was the personal application to 
her by name which drove away for ever her melancholy 
dream that He was absent, and caused her to turn herself 
and cry out "My Master!" with an adoring voice and ges- 
ture, as the context shews ; for the saying, " Touch Me 
not," implies an attempt on her part to embrace His knees, 
or hold Him by the feet, or some such action : and even if 
it had not been written, who could have doubted it ? 

And may we not here, too, remember that other Mary, her 
whom all generations shall call Blessed, when she not only 
saw and heard the Angel declaring the message of salvation 
to her, and to us all, but knew in herself that the Holy 
Ghost was come upon her, and the Power of the Highest 
overshadowing her, and that the Holy Thing that should be 
born of her was to be called the " Son of God?" What her 
feelings were we partly know by that hymn in Avhich, as we 
may reverently believe, she even now joins with the Church 
continually : which hymn is surely as perfect an act of 
adoration as ever was performed on earth by any but her 
divine Son Himself. We know that her Magnificat begins 
with owning the Lord and God as her Saviour; with amaze- 
ment that He had regarded "the lowliness of His hand- 
maiden j" that He had marked her out for a perpetual 
blessing, and had done to her great things. In respect of 
the Incarnation itself, then, it was not only the immensity 
of the Gift, but its inconceivably near approach also to the 
Receiver, which she was taught of the Holy Ghost adoringly 

No Gift so great or so near as the Eucharist. 7 

to acknowledge. Why or how should it be otherwise in re- Chap. I. 
spect of that which divines have truly called "the extension 
of the Incarnation/^ — the participation of the Incarnate One 
by His true members, in and through the spiritual eating 
and drinking of His present Body and Blood ? 

§ 9. Thus it would appear that God's holy Word from be- 
ginning to end abounds in examples to sanction those natu- 
ral instincts of the devout and loving heart, which prompt 
to deeper and more intense adoration, in proportion to the 
greatness of the gift, and the directness with which it comes 
straight to the receiver from Almighty God. 

Now the gift in the Holy Eucharist is Christ Himself — aU 
good gifts in one ; and that in an immense, inconceivable de- 
gree. And how can we conceive even Power Almighty to bring 
it more closely and more directly home to each one of us, 
than when His Word commands and His Spirit enables us to 
receive Him as it were spiritual meat and drink ? entering into 
and penetrating thoroughly the whole being of the renewed 
man, somewhat in the same way as the virtue of wholesome 
meat and drink diffuses itself through a healthful body : only, 
as we all know, with this great difference, (among others,) — 
that earthly meat and drink is taken up and changed into 
parts of our earthly frame, whereas the work of this heavenly 
nourishment is to transform our being into itself; to change 
us after His image, " from glory to glory," from the fainter 
to the more perfect brightness ; until " our sinful bodies be 
made clean by His Body, and our souls washed through His 
most precious Blood ; and we dwell evermore in Him, and 
He in us :" " we in Him," as members of " His mystical 
Body, which is the blessed company of all faithful people j" 
" He in us," by a real and unspeakable union with His 
divine Person, vouchsafed to us through a real and entirely 
spiritual participation of that Flesh and Blood which He 
took of our Father Adam through the Blessed Virgin Mary; 
wherewith He suffered on the Cross, wherewith also He now 
appears day and night before His Father in heaven for us. 
So that a holy man of our own Church was not afraid thus 
to write of this Sucraaicut :— 

8 All Grounds of Worship made intense in the Eucharist : 

" By the way of nourishment and strength 

Thou creep'st into my breast, 

Making Thy way my rest, 
And Thy small quantities my length, 
Which spread their forces into every part, 

Meeting sin's force and art. 

" Thy grace, which with these elements comes, 

Knoweth the ready way, 

And hath the privy key, 
Opening the soul's most subtle rooms'"." 

§ 10. The sum is this. Renewed nature prompts the Chris- 
tian, and Holy Scripture from beginning to end encourages 
him, to use special adoration to Almighty God at the receiv- 
ing of any special gift ; — adoration the more earnest and in- 
tense as the gift is greater, and the appropriation of it to tlie 
worshipper himself more entire and direct. So it is with all 
lesser, all partial gifts; how then should it not be so when 
we come to the very crown and fountain of all, that which 
comprehends all the rest in their highest possible excellency, 
and which is bestowed on each receiver by way of most un- 
speakable participation and union, — that gift wdiich is God 
Himself, as well as having God for its Giver? " Christ in us," 
not only Christ offered for us ; a " divine nature" set before 
us, of which we are to be made " partakers." Must we cease 
adoring when He comes not only as the Giver, but as the 
Gift ; not only as the Priest, but as the Victim ; not only 
as "the Master of the Feast," but as "the Feast itself"?" 
Nay, but rather this very circumstance is a reason beyond 
all reasons for more direct and intense devotion. 

§ 11. This brings us to the third circumstance, mentioned 
above as an obvious motive of adoration in the Holy Eucha- 
rist. For consider, — to take the lowest ground first, — when 
men are receiving a favour from a superior, is not a sense of 
his condescension a natural ingredient in their loving ac- 
knowledgments ? and if there is any thing generous and 

"' G. Herbert's Ecniuins, p. 09, cd. " ]?p. Tiiylor, Holy Liviiip : Works, 

1826. u. oiO, llebur's L'ditioii. 

Especially that of God's deep Condescension. 9 

grateful in their hearts, do they not honour and revere him chap. t. 
the more for every suffering, humiliation, debasement, in- 
dignity which he may have incurred in doing them good ? 
and can they well endure to hide and repress their venera- 
tion for him ? are they not the more bent on avowing it, 
the more they see him slighted by others, possibly on this 
very account, that he had not spared so to demean himself 
for their sake? 

Caleb "stilled the people before Moses," when the spies 
were setting them against him°. Joshua was jealous for 
Moses' sake, when some appeared to be prophesying without 
commission from him p. It is plain that their loyalty to him 
was quickened by the reproach they saw him enduring. So 
all the dark feelings and speeches of the unhappy Saul con- 
cerning David, served but to settle Jonathan's heart in lov- 
ing and honouring him more than ever. So Shimei's cursing 
David in his affliction kindled the zeal of his soldiers and 

And our Master, when He was with us in the flesh, more 
than once gave token of especial approbation and blessing 
to those who confessed Him the more unreservedly for the 
wrong that was done Him ; as to the sinful woman, who, un- 
consciously or not, supplied the Pharisee^s discourtesy by a 
washing, anointing, and salutation of her own ; to Simon 
Peter, speaking out before the rest, to own as the words of 
eternal life those sayings about Holy Communion, which 
had just driven away many of the disciples in disgust ; and 
very significautly to the man born blind, when he in dutiful 
and pious gratitude had stood up for Christ, his Restorer, 
against the Pharisees, and had incurred their scorn and 
hatred. " Thou wast altogether born in sin, and dost thou 
teach us ? and they cast him out. Jesus heard that they had 
cast him out ; and when He had found him, He said unto 
him. Dost thou believe on the Son of God ? he answered and 
said, AVho is He, Lord, that I might believe on Him? And 
Jesus said unto him, Thou hast both seen Him, and it is He 
that talketh with thee. And he said. Lord, I believe. And 
he worshipped Him i." The Pharisees' reviling of Christ, 

Numbeis xiii. 30. •* Numbers xi. 28. t S. John ix. 31 — 38. 

10 The Penitent Thief a Model of Eucharistical Worship. 

Chap, t. and of himself for Christ's sake, led him not only to belief, 
but to adoration. 

And what shall we say of the Thief on the Cross ? It may 
appear by the tenor of the sacred history, that the provi- 
dential instrument of his conversion was the revilings of the 
crowd and of his fellow-malefactor, — in which he himself at 
first ignorantly joined, — so meekly and majestically borne 
by the holy Jesus. When he saw that, he perceived at once 
that " This Man hath done nothinj^ amiss ;" and he became 
the first to know and own Christ, " and the power of His re- 
surrection, and the fellowship of His sufferings, being made 
conformable unto His death'." The deep veneration he had 
conceived for our Lord, as for an innocent Man receiving 
the due reward of such wicked deeds as his own, was re- 
warded with an adoring faith in Him as Lord and Judge of 
the whole world ; and he became the first example of those 
who should be saved by the blessed Cross. And beholding 
his Lord's glory through the veil of His extreme humiliation, 
and taught from above to understand that for that very 
humiliation's sake he was to surrender himself entirely to 
Christ, — to worship Him with all the powers of his soul, — 
he became also a pattern for all who would be worthy com- 
municants. For what is that which we remember specially, 
and on which we fix our mind's eye in Holy Communion, 
but the same which he then saw with his bodily eyes? — the 
Body and Blood of Christ, i. e. Christ Himself, offered up by 
Himself for that thief and for each one of us? And if he 
worshipped, and was blessed, why not we? 

We seem to have been drawn up unawares, by this enu- 
meration of examples, from the contemplation of a high 
moral sentiment to that of a cardinal principle in the king- 
dom of heaven ; for such undoubtedly has ever been the 
rule of acknowledging Christ's Incarnation, and all His con- 
descensions and humiliations consequent upon it, by special 
and express acts of homage and worship, inward and out- 
ward, according to the time and occasion. 

But this topic may better be referred to the second and 

■■ riiilipp. iii. 10. 

,' The Antecedent Presumption is in favour of Worship. 11 

third heads of our proposed enquiry, — "What are the more Chap. I. 
direct bearings of Holy Scripture, and ancient Church tes- 
monies, on the practice of worshipping Christ iu the Eu- 
charist ? 



§ 1. After what has been alleged, it will not, I think, be 
assuming too much, if we turn to those passages of our 
Bibles which more immediately relate to the Eucharist and 
the great theological verities connected with it, in the ex- 
pectation of finding the worship of Christ in that Sacrament 
rather enjoined than discouraged ; seeing that therein are 
combined and concentrated, in a manner and degree past 
human imagining, the several reasons and occasions of spe- 
cial worship, such as, in minor instances, natural piety points 
them out to us, and as they are everywhere recognised by 
Holy Scripture and the Church. There is (1.) a peculiar 
Presence of the Most High; (2.) bringing with it an awful, 
an infinite blessing ; (3.) appropriating it, moreover, to eacli 
one of us in a way inconceivably near and intimate ; and (4.) 
with a measure of condescension and humiliation on His 
part, such as could not have entered into the heart of man 
to conceive. Surely if, notwithstanding all this, our Lord's 
will is that we should not so adore Him, we might expect to 
find somewhere a distinct prohibition of the practice. The 
onus probandi lies upon those who would restrain us. We 
may require them, in legal phrase, to "shew cause" from 
the AYord of God, as understood always, everywhere, and by 
all, why we should do violence to so many instincts of our 
nature. As Bishop Taylor has taught us to ask, " If Christ 
be there, why are we not to worship V I say again, Accord- 
ing to all sound rules of argument, it is rather our right to 
call upon those who censure the practice to cite some text 
forbidding it, than it is theirs to call upon us for one ex- 
pressly enjoining it. 

It has bi en repeated over and over again, that neither our 

12 Worship due to Christ* s Manhood, 

Chap. II. Lord in the words of institution, nor S.Paul in his inspired 
comment on them, has said anything about worshipping 
Christ there present "under the form" (or "outward part") 
"of Bread and Wine;" and therefore, that to abstain from 
such worship is the safer way. " If it be not commanded, 
it is virtually forbidden." Perhaps the foregoing considera- 
tions may lead some to invert the argument, and say rather, 
"If not forbidden, it is virtually commanded." 

I proceed to point out in Holy Scripture what appears to 
me a very strong additional argument for the practice, — 
a complete justification, even if it do not amount to an im- 
plicit recommendation of it. 

§ 2. Carrying on the idea with which the former section 
ended, may we not say, that throughout Holy Scripture, as 
afterwards throughout the traditions of the Catholic Church, 
is discernible an evident anxiety (so to speak) to preserve, 
and encourage, and impress on all believers this portion 
especially of the sacred doctrine of the Incarnation, That 
" the Manhood is taken into God?" the human nature abid- 
ing in our Lord's Person, true and entire, from the very 
moment of His Incarnation; and thenceforth eternally re- 
ceiving from the Divine Nature, to which it is inseparably 
united, all such properties and perfections as it might en- 
joy without losing its reality and ceasing to be human. The 
manifestation, indeed, of these properties and perfections, — 
the " Beams of Deity," — restrained and enlarged themselves 
according to the exigencies of the marvellous work in pro- 
gress, known only to the great Ruler thereof; but in deed 
and in truth the Communication itself of the properties of 
the higher nature to the lower, (to use a comparatively late 
ecclesiastical form,) was complete within the limit above- 
mentioned, from the very moment that the Second Person of 
the Trinity became Man. 

§ 3. With regard especially to that property to which the 
present enquiry relates, — the Epistle to the Hebrews ex- 
pressly declares, " When He bringeth in the First-begotten 
into the world, {els rrjv otKov/j.evrjv,) He saith. And let all the 
Angels of God worship Him^" What is els ttjp oUovfxevijp ? 

* Heb. i. 5 ; from Ps. xcvii. 7, and Deut. xxxii. 43. LXX. 

as taken into God. 13 

''Into the created and inhabited world:" (such is the con- Chap. II. 
slant use of the word in Holy Scripture). Therefore the 
saying, "Introducing the First-born into the world," lite- 
rally means " causing Him to become one of the creatures, 
one of the inhabitants of the world which God had made;" 
as He describes Himself, " These things saith the Amen, the 
faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of 
God*;" or as the Holy Ghost describes Him by S. Paul, He is 
" the Image of the invisible God, the First-born of every crea- 
ture" ;" " the First-born among many brethren* ;" the First- 
born, not in time, but in rank, and in the counsel of God. 

Of course, when our gracious Lord began to be of the 
number of God's creatures, i. e. at the time of His incar- 
nation and birth. He began to be the First-born in this 
sense. To that moment, and to no other, we may with 
some confidence affirm, the Apostle carries us back, — as the 
prophet David, whom he by the Holy Ghost is interpreting, 
carries us forward, — in the words, " And let all the Angels of 
God worship Him." The prophecy we know was literally ful- 
filled : to the Hebrew Christians, to whom the Apostle was 
writing, it was matter of welUknown history. At the very 
time that the blessed Virgin Mary brought forth her First- 
born Son, the Angel appeared to the shepherds with the 
good tidings of great joy; but the multitude of the heavenly 
host, with their full hymn of praise, did not appear until the 
words of deeper humiliation were added, " Ye shall find the 
Babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger." A 
thing which has been often observed, and which is surely 
much to our present purpose : it has a doctrinal as well as a 
moral meaning. Read by the light which is thrown back 
upon it by the Apostle's saying to the Hebrews, it looks like 
a proclamation from the Great King, This is He whom I 
delight to honour, " worship Him all ye gods," all that is 
called God in heaven and in earth; let the highest of 
created beings adore Him with a special worship by reason 
of His unspeakable humiliation, now that He is made man, 
" wrapped in swaddling clothes, and laid in a manger ;" let 
them understand that on this day the Father of all by the 

' Rev. ii. 14. " Coloss. i. 15. ' Rom. viii. 29. 

14 The Angels commanded to adore Christ's Manhood. 

Chap. II. Holy Ghost hath become the Father of the Man Christ 
Jesus, in that sense in whieh Clirist vouchsafes to be "the 
Beginning, the First-born pf every creature;" in that sense 
in which it is said to Ilim, "Thou art My Son, this day have 
I begotten Theey." God never said so to any of the An- 
gels, but lie said it to Christ, when lie " glorified Him to 
become an High-priest;" anointing the human nature that 
was in Christ with the Holy Ghost, without stint or mea- 
sure^. That was at the moment of His Incarnation, for from 
that moment it pleased the Father that in Him should all 
fulness dwell—" all the fulness of the Godhead bodily." To 
that, and not to anything added by the Holy Ghost which 
had just descended upon Him, the word spoken from heaven 
at His baptism evidently refers : " Thou art My beloved Son, 
in Thee I am well pleased." 

So also, I venture to think, does the quotation of S. Paul 
in Acts xiii. 33 ; although our translation would seem rather 
to connect it with the resurrection : " We declare unto you 
glad tidings, how that the promise made unto the fathers, 
God hath fulfilled the same unto us their children, in that 
He hath raised up Jesus, [avaa-Trjaas 'Irjaovv] : as it is also 
written in the second Psalm, * Thou art My Son ; this day 
have I begotten Thee.' " That this, not " raised up again'' is 
here the more natural rendering of the word ava(TTrja-as, may 
appear from the texts cited below ^ The leading idea seems 
to be that oi " raising up a seed unto David to sit on his 
throne," and also (as in the text last cited below), to be 
a Priest as well as a King. And this will account for the 
repetition of the word w ith express reference to the resurrec- 
tion in the following verse : "As concerning that He raised 
Ilim from, the dead, now no more to return to corruption. 
He saith on this wise, ' I will give you the sure mercies of 
David.' " 

That is the decree, the law, which the Father in the second 
Psalm declares, and the Son in the fortieth Psalm accepts 
" in the midst of His heart." Henceforth for ever the Son 

y Heb. V. 5. Jer. xxiii. 5 ; Ezek. xxxiv. 23 j Acts 

» S. Johniii. 34. ii. 30; S. Matth. xxii. 24; Kom. xv. 

" Deut. xviii. 15; 2 Sam. vii. 12; 12, from Isaiah xi. 10; Heb. vii. 11. 

They did so at His Birth, and after His Bajtism. 15 

is made perfect Man, and as Man is to be adored with special Chap. II. 
adoration by all tlie Angels of Leaven. 

§ 4. Observe again, according. to this interpretation, the 
deep significance of that M'hich is written by two Evangelists 
out of three in their report of our Lord's temptation. In 
S. Matthew we read, "The devil leaveth Him, and behold 
Angels came and ministered unto Him.^' But in S. Mark, 
from the condensation of the narrative, the lesson of adora- 
tion is brought out in a still more striking manner : " There 
came a Voice from Heaven, saying, Thou art My beloved Son, 
in whom I am well pleased. And immediately the Spirit 
driveth Him into the wilderness. And He was there in the 
wilderness forty days, tempted of Satan ; and was with the 
Avild beasts; and the Angels ministered unto Him'\" 

There is a mysterious correspondence, if I mistake not, 
between the order of these events and of those which hap- 
pened on Christmas night. First, in both cases alike. Angels 
and men are called upon to take notice that the human 
presence of our Lord is the presence of the Only-begotten 
Son : with this difference, however, that at Bethlehem it was 
the actual Incarnation of the Word, His taking to Himself 
a natural body ; by the river Jordan, it was His taking to 
Himself His mystical body, typified in His baptism, to which 
the Voice from the excellent glory referred. So we are in- 
structed by one of the earliest fathers, S. Clement of Alex- 
andria : " Unto the Lord at His Baptism sounded out from 
heaven a Voice, the Witness to the Beloved, ' Thou art My 
Son, this day have I begotten Thee.'.. ..Whether these 
people will or no, must they not confess that the perfect 
Word, Offspring of the perfect Father, was perfectly regene- 
rated by vjay of economy and prefiguration ? . . . . Now this 
same happens also to us, of whom our Lord became the re- 
presentation. In baptism we are illuminated, in illumination 
adopted, in adoption perfected, in perfection immortalized. 
His word is, * I said, ye are gods, and children of the 
Highest, all of you *^.' " Angelical service follows in both, but 
in neither immediately. The hymn of congratulation at our 
Lord's birth, and the lowly ministry and homage after the 

•- S. Mark i. 11—13. <= Pa3dag. i. 25, 26. 

16 Angelical Homage to our Lord in His Agony. 

Chap. II. proclamation at His baptism, (the former of which wc know 
was accompanied with adoration ; and how can we doubt it 
concerning the other?) were each of them reserved, as it 
were, until Ilis mysterious humiliation had been announced 
by additional circumstances. The multitude of the heavenly 
host did not sing Gloria hi Excelsis until they had heard of 
the swaddling bands and the manger; the Angels did not 
come and minister unto Him who was declared the only- 
begotten and beloved Son until He had been cast out into 
the wilderness, had abode there forty days fasting, with no 
companions but the wild beasts, and (most mysterious and 
fearful self-abasement,) Satan tempting Him. Then, not 
before, they were allowed to shew themselves at hand with 
their adoring homage, — homage paid as to Him whom they 
knew to be their Lord and their God, and accepted by Him 
just after He had re-affirmed the rule, binding alike on angel 
and man, "Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him 
only shalt thou serve." 

§ 5. The same words were once again uttered by the 
same voice at our Lord's transfiguration : aii earnest, no 
doubt, of His glory after His resurrection ; but as they were 
not then accompanied by any special humiliation, so neither 
was there any response of angelic praise and worship. 

§ 6. But the next occasion on which w-e do read of such 
ministration being accepted by our Lord after the flesh, is 
when He was in the lowest and saddest of His agony : " His 
sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to 
the ground. — And there appeared an Angel unto Him from 
heaven, strengthening Him*^" S. Luke, who singly relates 
this, had omitted the homage of the Angels in his account of 
the temptation, but had added, that the devil's then depart- 
ing from our Lord was but " for a season ;" i. e. until the 
moment came which in the same Gospel is described as the 
" hour" of Christ's enemies, " and the power of darkness." 
As though the good and bad spirits stood watching in their 
several ways for each new step in the process whereby He was 
" emptying Himself of His glory;" the one to indulge in their 
despairing fierceness, the other to pour themselves out in 

•> S. Luke xxii. 41—44. 

How our Lord was " seen of Angels" 17 

adoring love and duty. Thus both the one and the other Chap. II. 
sort became witnesses — the one willing, the other unwilling — 
of His condescension, and of the victory thereby achieved; 
as the same Father again writes : " The Lord after His 
baptism is tossed as with a tempest for a type of us, and 
Cometh first to be with wild beasts in the wilderness ; then 
having overcome these and their prince, He, as now a true 
King, is ministered unto by Angels. For He who in the 
flesh overcame Angels, good reason is it that Angels should 
now be His servants •=." 

There were Angels attending, too, on Christ^s resurrec- 
tion, but employed chiefly, as far as we are told, in guard- 
ing His tomb and grave-clothes, and other tokens of hu- 
miliation, and by them declaring His glory to those who 
came seeking Him. 

§ 7. Thus from the moment of His Incarnation, while yet 
in this world under the veil of His flesh, as well as afterwards, 
now and unto the end of the world, while He is being "jus- 
tified in the Spirit V^ — shewn all holy and righteous by the 
dispensation of the Holy Ghost, — Jesus Christ was and is 
" seen of Angels ;" or rather, as holy writers take it, " hath 
appeared unto Angels." For, " that is said to appear which 
hath it in its own power to be seen or not to be seen, and is 
not under the power of the person seeing. Thus we say not, 
' The stone appears to me,' but ' I see the stone.' If, there- 
fore, an Angel had it in his own nature or power to see the 
Word, it would not be said that the Word ' appeared' unto 
him, but rather that he himself saw the Word when he would. 
And therefore the Apostle saitli, ' He appeared unto Angels,' 
because in their own nature they saw Him not. And true it 
is that from tjie beginning He appeared unto the Angels, 
when upon their turning towards Him He made them par- 
takers of a divine nature ; but when He was made flesh, 
many mysteries became known to the Angels which they had 
not known before^." These are the things which they stoop 
down from heaven " to look into," — the suff'erings of their 
Lord and ours, and the glories that follow : the suflFerings 

• S. Clem. Alex. Fragm., series i. § 85. '1 Tim. iii. 16. 

* Aquin. in 1 Ep. ad Tim. c. iii. 16« 


18 Good and bad Angels waiting on the Eucharist, 

Chap. II. first, and then the glories; in that order "the manifold 
wisdom of God" is "made known by the Church to the 
principalities and powers in heavenly places ;" and whatever 
may be said of us fallen creatures, with them, we are sure, 
to know is to worship. 

§ 8. Just as, on the other side, the evil Spirits, " the princes 
of this world''," came to know by degrees the " wisdom" 
which the gospel " speaks among them that are perfect ;" a 
kind of "wisdom not of this world," but the "wisdom of 
God in a mystery ;" a wisdom which they knew not at first, 
for " had they known it, they would not have crucified the 
Lord of Glory ;" and as they knew more of it, they hated 
and scorned it more and more, as it is written, " The devil 
is come down unto you, having great wrath, because he 
knoweth that he hath but a short time." So from the be- 
ginning the Church taught, "There were three mysteries 
unknown to the prince of this world — the virginity of Mary, 
her lying-in at Bethlehem, and the true account of our 
Lord's death; three mysteries most worthy to be proclaimed 
aloud, yet wrought in the silence of God' ;" and the spite 
and malice of the devil was as discernible in regard of each 
of these mysteries, when he came to know them, as was the 
joy and salutation of the Angels ; Herod, and the Pharisees, 
and Judas, being his instruments. 

§ 9. That which, according to the same authority, takes 
place in the spiritual world among the good and bad Angels 
invisibly attending on every Holy Communion, is but another 
step in the same process. From the beginning it has been 
understood that the blessed Angels are ever at hand attend- 
ing on the Christian altar, taking part in our hymns and 
thanksgivings, and wafting upward in a mysterious way all 
our dutiful prayers and ofibrings. S. Paul** makes this well- 
known fact a principle on which Christians ought to regulate 
all their demeanour, even their dress, in doing God service. 
" A woman ought to havie power," i. e. some mark of her 
being under power and authority, " on her head, because of 
the Angels :" that everything may be done decently, and in 
order, in the presence of those glorious beings. And on the 
I" 1 Cor. ii. 6—8. ' S. Ignatius ad Ephes. c. 19. " 1 Cor. xi. 10. 

a Token of our Lord's adorable Presence. 19 

other hand, Satan was waiting at the very first Eucharist of Chap. II. 
all to enter into Judas Iscariot ; and we know what great and 
peculiar danger there is of his entering in and re-possessing 
unworthy communicants. 

Why are the Angels so especially present, — why is Satan 
so to be feared as near at hand, — in Holy Communion, more 
than in other Church ceremonies ? Surely because the Gift 
is greater and nearer, and more distinctly applied to each one, 
and that with more unreserved condescension on the part of 
the Giver, than on any other occasion in the Christian life. 
Surely because it is the Word made Flesh, personally pre- 
sent and revealed in the truth of His human nature, and 
ofi'ering thereby to make His own partakers of His divine 
nature also : and " wheresoever the Carcase," the holy slain 
Body is, " thither will the eagles be gathered together •" the 
good, and saintly, and angelical Spirits to feed on it, — the 
Judases and enemies of Christ to mangle and to scorn it. 

§ 10. All this is no more than Holy Scripture, as in- 
terpreted by the ancient Church, plainly teaches ; and all 
this plainly implies a Real objective Presence of the Body 
and Blood of Christ, and that to be both eaten and wor- 
shipped, in Holy Communion. It implies such an union of 
condescension and power for the deification (so termed by 
the Fathers) of each one of us ^, as the very Incarnation and 
Cross exhibited for the salvation and redemption of all man- 
kind. Therefore, as our Lord newly incarnate, and nailed 
to His Cross, was to be specially adored by men and Angels, 
80 also in this Sacrament. 

§ 11. Other scriptural facts and associations tending to 
the same conclusion are. First, The reverence ordained to be 
paid, and always paid from the beginning, to the Name of 
Jesus above all other names ; to the sign of the Cross above 
all other signs ; to the Gospels above other portions of Holy 
Scripture j and to Nazareth, Bethlehem, Calvary, above all 
other places. 

Secondly, The peculiar significancy and use of the term 
Son of Man. 

' Cf. 2 S. Pet. i. 4. 


20 Jesus a Name of Humiliation, therefore honoured 

Chap. II. Thirdly, The ways in which believers, while He was yet on 
earth, found themselves gradually and instinctively drawn to 
worship Him present in the flesh, and the manner in which 
He received that worship. 

Fourthly, and above all. The account constantly given of 
the rationale of the Holy Eucharist itself, both as a sacrifice, 
and as a sacrificial feast. 

§ 12. As the Body of Jesus during His earthly sojourn 
was marked out to be honoured by the holy Angels, so 
afterwards was the Name of Jesus also ; and, as we may 
reverently believe, for a like cause. The Body was to be 
especially glorified, as being the inferior part of Christ's in- 
ferior nature ; the very footstool, as the Psalmist speaks, of 
His feet " ; the " heel" of the Seed of the Woman, which was 
to be " bruised." In like manner, because Jesus is (humanly 
speaking) the name given to Him by a poor man as to a poor 
woman's child, — the name by which He was ordinarily known 
when supposed to be a mere man among men ; — because people 
called Him by that name while He went up and down as a 
carpenter's son, and Himself a carpenter, in the despised vil- 
lage of Nazareth ; — because it was a name associated in the 
minds of all His acquaintance, during the first thirty years of 
His life, with the tasks and cares, and the very tools, of that 
ordinary trade ; with recollections, indeed, of a most blame- 
less and devout demeanour, but not as yet with anything 
transcendent, supernatural, or divine : — because it was the 
name which, being connected with Nazareth, (out of which 
town, it was taken for granted, no good thing could come,) 
proved afterwards through His whole ministry a most efiPec- 
tual stumbling-block to those who were unwilling to believe : 
because it was the name whereby He was described as a 
Nazarene, the name which His enemies in mockery wrote 
upon His cross, as contrasting most signally with His high 
and sacred claims : because it was the name whereby He 
should be named in scorn among all generations of the un- 
believing, — (whether worldly-minded Romans, who could not 
endure to be told " that there is another King, one Jesus ;" 
or bigoted Jews, exasperated by the notion that " this Jesus 

™ Ps. xcix. 5. 

by Angels, good and bad ; instrumental in Miracles. 21 

of Nazareth shall destroy this place, and change the customs Chap. II. 
which Moses delivered/' and convinced therefore, with Saul, 
that they ought to do the most they could contrary to His 
name ; or apostate Mahometans and heretics, in the East or 
in the West, delighting to call Him by that one of all His 
titles which they take to be merely of earth :) — in one word, 
because it is the name most expressive of His humiliation, 
therefore His thoughtful servants would instinctively select 
it in preference to all His other names for especial honour 
and reverence. 

§ 13. And so we see they did, prompted not by their 
feelings only, but by the special inspiration of God's Holy 
Spirit, whose will it was that in this way the dignity of Christ 
the Son of God, and His most true incarnation, might never 
want a witness. The Angels called Him by that name to 
His honour, remembering, no doubt, how they had brought 
it from heaven, "Be not affrighted ; ye seek Jesus of Naza- 
reth, which was crucified^;" and the evil Spirits in their tor- 
menting dread of Him, — " What have we to do with Thee, 
Jesus, Thou Son of God ?" " What have I to do with Thee, 
Thou Jesus of Nazareth"?" "What have I to do with Thee, 
Jesus, Thou Son of the most high God^?" By that name, 
in preference to all others, the disciples proclaimed Him after 
His deaths, and the Apostles after His ascension ^ In that 
name they wrought their miracles^ : " In the Name of Jesus 
Christ of Nazareth rise up and walk ;" "^neas, Jesus Christ 
maketh thee whole;" "I command thee in the name of 
Jesus Christ to come out of her." By that name the forgers 
of lies pretended to cast out evil spirits: "I adjure thee," 
they cried, "by Jesus, whom Paul preacheth*." To the 
Name of Jesus were annexed all saving as well as healing 
powers ; " By the Name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom 
ye crucified, whom God raised from the dead, even by Him 
doth this man stand here before you whole : neither is there 
salvation in any other ; for there is none other name under 
heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved"." 

n S. Mark xvi. 6. " Acts ii. 22. 

" S. Mark 5. 24. • Acts iii. 6 : ix. 34; xvi, 18. 

P S. Mark v. 7. ' Acts xix. 13. 

't Luke xxiv. 19. » Acts iv. 11, 12. 

22 Prerogatives of the Name of Jesus : 

Chap. II. Therefore to the Name of Jesus, rather than to any other, 
are to be referred the many promises made by God Almighty 
concerning His Name ; whether things are said to be done 
Tft) ovofjuaTL, " by the use and instrumentahty of it," as in 
S, Matt. vii. 22, " Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in 
Thy Name ? and in Thy Name have cast out devils ? and 
in Thy Name done many wonderful works ?" or iv tw 6v6' 
fiart, implying that it is He, not the visible agent, who 
doeth the work, or obtaineth the blessing, as in S. Mark 
xvi. 1 7, " In My Name they shall cast out devils ;" and 
S. Luke X. 17, " Lord, even the very devils are subject unto us 
through Thy Name ;" and especially in the gracious promises 
near the end of S, John's Gospel, "Whatsoever ye shall ask 
the Father in My Name, He will do it';" — or ek to ovofia, 
when in a mystery men are made or accounted partakers of 
the name, or of Him who is named, as in S. Matt, xviii. 20, 
" Where two or three are gathered together in My Name ;" 
xxviii. 19, {els ro ovofia,) "Unto the name of the Father, 
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost;" and S. John i. 12, 
" But as many as received Him, to them gave He power to 
become the sons of God, even to them that believe on His 
Name ;" which three texts declare respectively the virtue of 
the communion of saints, of baptism, and of faith, for the 
uniting of us to Christ ; — or eVt tc5 ovofiari, " for the pro- 
nouncing or profession of it ;" as in S. Matt, xviii. 5, " Who- 
soever shall receive one such little one in My Name, receiveth 
Me ;" and xxiv. 5, " Many shall come in My Name, saying, 
I am Christ ; '' and S. Luke xxiv. 47, " Remission of sins 
should be preached in His Name ;" and Acts ii. 38, " Be 
baptized in the Name of Jesus Christ ;" — or hia to ovofxa, 
"because of the Name" outwardly called on them, and 
made a ground of persecution, as in S. Matt. xxiv. 9, " Ye 
shall be hated of all men for My Name's sake;" and in 
S. John XV. 21, " All these things will they do unto you for 
My Name's sake." 

§ 14. The Apostle, gathering together in one all these 
and the like promises, and the manifold daily fulfilments of 

' In one instance the same form of tion of persons in the Godhead itself; 
speech seems to indicate the distinc- S. John xiv. 26. 

Rule of Bowing at it ; Mystical Allusions to it. 23 

them to which he was witness, did by the Holy Ghost enact Chap. II. 
and pronounce this canon, for the inward and outward wor- 
ship of all God's reasonable and understanding creatures, not 
only in time, but in eternity, That " at the Name of Jesus 
every knee should bow^." Why at the Name of Jesus, rather 
than at that of Christ, or Immanuel, or Saviour, or any other 
of His good and great names ? Why should Jesus be alone 
specified, as the Name which is above every name? Surely, 
if the Scripture did not expressly inform us, yet, from its in- 
direct notices, such as have now been exemplified, a sufficiently 
probable answer might have been given to this question ; but 
now we are not left in the smallest doubt. It was because, 
" being in the form of God," He " thought it not robbery to 
be equal with God : but made Himself of no reputation, and 
took upon Him the form of a servant, and was made in the 
likeness of men : and being found in fashion as a man. He 
humbled Himself, and became obedient unto death, even the 
death of the cross. Wherefore God also hath highly exalted 
Him, and given Him a Name which is above every name : 
that at the Name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things 
in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth ; 
and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is 
Lord, to the glory of God the Father." As if he should 
say, Jesus is His title of humiliation ; therefore by that title 
He is evermore to receive especial homage, 

§ 15. From Angels, both good and bad. He does receive it, 
as we have seen. In their several ways they bow, and ever 
will bow, their knees to the Name of Jesus. And the Holy 
Church from the beginning has venerated this Name above 
the rest, in affectionate reverence encouraging her children 
to refer to it on all occasions, in preference to any other of 
our Lord's names ; as the very sayings of her enemies suffi- 
ciently prove, who cannot contain themselves for scorn at 
the cold, and strained, and forced allusions to that Name 
(so appearing to them) which the writers of the first ages 
are continually finding or inventing, both in Holy Scripture 
and in the course of nature and of Providence. A single in- 
stance will sufficiently explain what is meant. S. Clement 

« Philipp. ii. 10. 

24 Testimonies of Reverence to the Name of Jesus. 

Chap. II. of Alexandria, in the course of an essay in which he traces 
out the mystical tenor of each of the ten commandments, as 
indicated by the number which marks its place, says of the 
collective meaning of them ally, "The Decalogue taken alto- 
gether doth, by the letter I (=10) signify the blessed Name, 
setting before us Jesus, Who is the Word." 

If you ask why this Name is set forth in preference to any 
other of His names, S. Augustine will answer for the rest 
— " Jesus has one meaning, Christ another : Jesus Christ our 
Saviour being one only ; Jesus, nevertheless, is His proper 
Name. As Moses, Elijah, Abraham, were so called by their 
proper names, so our Lord, for His proper Name, hath the 
Name Jesus ; whereas Christ is His sacramental Name ^ ;" or, 
as S. Augustine goes on to explain. His name of office, " as 
if you should call a man prophet or priest." That is why 
the Church has always distinguished the Name of Jesus 
above all other names, — because it is His very own Name ; 
the Bride delights in it, because it is the very own Name of 
Him whom her soul loveth ; His own Name, which He as- 
sumed as the token of His taking her to Himself for ever, 
and of the infinite, inconceivable condescension of His being 
made man in order to that union. 

Therefore, as a distinguished mediaeval commentator wit- 
nesses, "There is a common and laudable custom of the 
Church, whereby the Name Jesus is even more honoured 
than the Name God. For which cause, when the Name of 
Jesus is heard, the faithful people either bow the head or 
bend the knees ; which they do not on hearing the Name 
of God \" 

S. Bernard gives a testimony such as one might expect 
from the author of the " JesUy dulcis Memoria." Preaching 
on Canticles i. 3, Thy Name is oil poured out, he says**, "I 
shew you a Name which is fitly compared to oil ; how fitly, 
I will explain. Many titles of the Bridegroom you read here 
and there in every page of God's Book, but in two I will em- 
brace them all for you. You will not, I think, find one which 

7 Strom, vi. 145. • Abulensis, in Corn, h, Lapide ou 

' S. Aug. in 1 Ep. Johannis, tr. iii. Philipp. ii. 10. 
§ 6. '' Seim. XV. § 1, 3, 4. 

Honour to the Name Jesus, mediaval and Anglican. 25 

sounds not either of the grace of Mercy, or the power of Chap. II. 
Majesty. . . These two things I have heard, — that power be- 
longeth nnto God, and that Thou, Lord, art merciful. E. g. 
*The Lord our righteousness' is a name of power; 'Em- 
manuel/ of mercy. Now the name of majesty and power 
is in a certain way poured over into that which is of mercy 
and grace ; and the latter is poured out abundantly by Jesus 
Christ our Saviour. . . " Run, ye nations : salvation is at hand, 
the Name is poured out, which whosoever will call on shall 
be saved." . . " I recognise the Name of which I have read 
in Isaiah, He will call His own servants by another name, 
wherein whosoever is blessed upon the earth, shall be blessed 
in the Lord. O blessed Name ! O oil poured out in all 
directions ! Where will it stop ? From heaven it runneth 
out upon Judsea, and thence over all the earth ; and from 
the whole world the Church crieth out. Thy Name is oil 
poured out, — poured out, indeed, so that not only hath it 
imbued heaven and earth, but hath sprinkled also the un- 
seen world, so that at the Name of Jesus every knee should 
bow, of things in heaven, and in earth, and under the earth, 
and every tongue confess and say, Thy Name is oil poured 

It would appear that there was no need of enforcing this 
reverence by synodical enactment until one hundred years 
after S. Bernard; but in the second Council of Lyons, 1274, 
the Church uttered this among other most impressive warn- 
ings : " ' Holiness becometh the house of the Lord ;' it is be- 
coming that He whose abode hath been made in peace, should 
be worshipped in peace with due veneration. Wherefore let 
men's entrance into churches be humble and devout. Let 
their demeanour therein be quiet, well-pleasing to God, com- 
posed in sight of men, such as not only to edify, but to 
soothe thoughtful observers. W hen they come together in 
that place, the Name which is above every name, besides 
which there is none other under heaven given unto men, where- 
in believing they must be saved, i. e. the Name of Jesus 
Christ, who saved His people from their sins, — that Name let 
them exalt by manifestation of especial reverence. And that 
which is written concerning all, that 'in the Name of Jesus 

26 English Canons for Bowing at the Name of Jesus. 

Chap. II. every knee should bow/ the same let each for his own part 
fulfil in himself, (especially while the sacred mysteries of the 
Eucharist are being celebrated,) by bowing the knees of his 
heart at every mention of that glorious Name, and in wit- 
ness thereof at least inclining his head''." 

§ 16. Neither has the reformed Church of England ever 
had any scruple in continuing so dutiful a ceremony; only 
it appears by the 52nd Injunction of Queen Elizabeth, 1559, 
that there was need to enforce it, not as a new thing, but 
as an ancient custom in more or less danger of disparage- 
ment. " It is to be necessarily received, . . . that whensoever 
the Name of Jesus shall be in any lesson, sermon, or other- 
wise in the Church pronounced, due reverence be made of all 
persons both young and old, with lowness of courtesy, and 
uncovering of heads of the men kind, as thereunto doth 
necessarily belong, and heretofore hath been accustomed*^." 

In what quarter, and from what spirit, the necessity for 
this injunction arose, we may gather from the following pas- 
sage of Cartwright's first Admonition": "When Jesus is 
named, then oflF goeth the cap, and down goeth the knee, 
with such a scraping on the ground, that they cannot hear a 
good while after, so that the word is hindered; but when 
other names of God are mentioned, they make no curtesy 
at all; as though the names of God were not equal, or as 
though all reverence ought to be given to the syllables." 

What Hooker, on the part of the Church, replies to this, 
will be cited presently. Whitgift, affirming also the primi- 
tive origin of the ceremony, adds, in substance, the same 
account of it: — "One reason that moved Cliristians in the 
beginning the rather to bow at the Name of Jesus than at 
any other name of God, was because this name was most 
hated and most contemned of the wicked Jews and other 
persecutors of such as professed the Name of Jesus ^" 

The royal injunction, as everyone knows, was confirmed 
a few years afterwards by synodical authority : — " When in 
time of divine service the Lord Jesus shall be mentioned, 

"= Hard. vii. 716. • Abp. Whitgift, Defence, &c., 749. 

<" Cardwcll, Documentary Annals, ' Hooker, Eccl. Pol., V. xxx. 3, and 

i. 198. note. 

Bowing at Jesus' Name warrants Eucharistical Worship. 27 

due and lowly reverence shall be done by all persons present, Chap. II. 
as it hath been accustomed, testifying by these outward 
ceremonies and gestures, their inward humility, Christian 
resolution, and due acknowledgment that the Lord Jesus 
Christ, the true eternal Son of God, is the only Saviour of 
the world, in whom alone all the mercies, graces, and pro- 
mises of God to mankind for this life, and the life to come, 
are fully and wholly comprised"." And this regulation seems 
generally to have been acquiesced in, so far, at least, as that 
the Presbyterian divines in the Savoy Conference make no 
mention of bowing at the holy Name as one of the points 
which then disturbed men's consciences in the Prayer-book. 
§ 1 7. Now all the reasons alleged from the beginning, and 
accepted by the universal Church and our own, for the honour- 
ing the Name of Jesus above all other names, hold with as 
great or greater force for special adoration of our Lord in 
the holy Eucharist, and make it still more imperative upon 
the prohibitors to produce some irresistible authority from 
Holy Scripture, or express Church law, if they would bring 
their prohibition home to a Christian man's conscience. Was 
Jesus the Name, among all His names, most expressive of 
His deep humiliation ? So are the sacramental elements 
among all the means of grace, both as being in themselves 
so cheap and ordinary, and as representing especially His 
Death and Passion. Was Jesus our Lord's proper Name, 
brought from heaven, with a command that by It above other 
names we should make mention of Him ? So was the holy 
Eucharist divinely ordained, that by it above all other rites 
we should make memorial of Him. Is Jesus His Name as a 
Man — one of ourselves ? So is the holy Eucharist that by 
which He, the Wisdom of the Father, delighteth to be among 
the sons of men ^. Is the Name of Jesus especially connected 
everywhere with the healing, saving works of the Son of 
God, and expressly made adorable both by men and angels ? 
Yet no promise associated with it can surpass what He, who 
is Truth, has annexed for ever to the eating His Flesh and 
drinking His Blood. Has the reverence due to this Name 
been ever cherished in the Church, as one great safeguard of 

K 18tli Canon, 1G03. h Prov. viii, 31. 

28 So does Standing up at the Gospel. 

Chap. II. the faith of His true Incarnation? So we know that against 
ancient heretics one topic for effectually asserting that same 
faith in its integrity was the analogy between it and the 
doctrine of the Real Presence in the Eucharist, testified by 
our adoration. 

It should seem, then, that whatever can be alleged for 
peculiar devotion to the holy Name, the same, and much 
more, can be alleged for peculiar devotion to the holy Thing 
received in the Sacrament ; with this single exception, that 
we have no distinct form of words commanding us to adore 
in Holy Communion, as we have commanding us to bow at 
the Name of Jesus. But we have (as I hope presently to 
shew) declarations of our Lord fully equivalent to any such 
form of words. In the meantime, the simple fact that ado- 
ration is commanded at the mention of Christ's human Name 
might well warrant the Church in claiming it for the Real 
Presence of His holy Humanity. 

§ 18. The same principle is recognised in the rubric which 
enjoins standing up while the Gospel is read ; not, of course, 
as though it were more truly and entirely God's Word than 
the Epistle and other Scriptures are, but because it is that 
portion of God's Word in which He most abases Himself, 
hiding His Divinity and Majesty beneath that humble and 
lowly veil. So universal was this custom, that Sozomen, 
writing in the middle of the fifth century, knew but of one 
exception to it, and that was in the Church of Alexandria, 
where the bishop continued sitting even at that time'. The 
Apostolical Constitutions'^, which, in such matters, may pro- 
bably be taken as representing the general mind of the 
Church, direct as follows : — " When the Gospels are in 
reading, let all the priests and deacons, and all the people, 
stand up in great quietness ; for it is written, ' Be still, and 
hearken, O Israel.' And again, ' But do thou stand here and 
listen'.' " S. Chrysostom on the beginning of St. Matthew 
says, " Let us not therefore with noise and tumult enter in, 
but with the silence due to mysteries; for if in a theatre, 
when a great silence hath been made, then the letters of 
the king are read, much more in this city must all be com- 

' ii. 57. ^ ii. 57. ' Dcut. 5. 37. 

So does the Primitive Custom of Crossing. 29 

posed, and stand with soul and ear erect. For it is not the Chap. II. 
letters of any earthly master, but of the Lord of angels, 
wliich are presently to be read." 

The rationale of this, as of bowing at the Name, is ex- 
pressed by Hooker in words which it would be wrong to omit, 
because they contain in them the principle of all that has 
been now alleged : — '' It sheweth a reverend regard to the Son 
of God above other messengers, although speaking as from 
God also. And against Infidels, Jews, Arians, who derogate 
from the honour of Jesus Christ, such ceremonies are most 
profitable." As if he should say, " Behold God Himself 
coming close to us, and humbling Himself to do so : so 
much the more ought we to adore Him." 

§ 19. By the same rule that the Name of Jesus is to be 
honoured above all other names, the sign of the Cross has 
been set apart from the beginning to be honoured above 
all other signs. I say, " from the beginning," for such un- 
doubtedly is the case : it is not here as in some other Church 
usages : the further we go back in Christian antiquity, the 
more distinctly and unequivocally does this devotion appear. 
If we look to the employment of it in baptism, and in almost 
every other holy ceremony, as well as in the practice of 
ordinary life, we have the well-known witness of Tertullian™. 
If to the instinctive use made of it in emergencies and 
dangers, spiritual or temporal, we have the allusion of S. 
Cyprian", the statement of Origen°, and the earnest exhorta- 
tion of S. ChrysostomP. — If to the practical and mystical 

■" De Corona Mil. c. 4. ap. Hooker, adds — which Origen refers to. Ap. 

V. Ixv. 2. Oper. Hieron. v. 95 ; Origen, ed. Be- 

" ii. 125. " Mnniatur frons, ut sig- ned. iii. 424. 

num Dei incolume servetur." p 21 Horn, de Statuis, t. vi. 611 ; 

° Fragui. from Origen on Ezekiel " When thou art on the point of stcp- 

ix. 4 (after mentioning two other per- ping over the threshold of thy door, 

sons, with their interpretations) : — "A utter this word first, ' I renounce thee, 

third, professing to have believed in Satan, and thy pomp, and thy ser- 

Jesus, said that in the ancient alphabet, vice ; and I enrol myself under Thee, 

Thau resembles the sign of the cross, O Christ.' And do thou never go out 

and that the prophecy relates to the without this word. This shall be to 

sign made among Christians on the thee a staff, a shield, an impregnable 

forehead, which all believers employ tower. And with this word form thou 

at the commencement of any transac- also the cross upon thy forehead : for 

tiou whatever, but especially of prayers so, not only no man meeting thee, but 

and holy readings." It is the Sama- not even the devil himself shall be 

ritan Thau — so the editor of S. .Jerome able to hurt thee at all." 

30 The Cross a warrant for honouring the Eucharist. 

Chap. II. way of detecting allusions to it in nature, we have S. Justin 
Martyr referring the very heathen to iti. If, lastly, we look 
to their expositions of Holy Scripture, we find among those 
early writers a consent all but universal and unhesitating; 
the Law, the Prophets, the Psalms, from beginning to end, 
disclosing to their Christian instinct anticipations of the 
blessed Cross : and, chiefest of all, we find them with a won- 
derful accord interpreting our Lord's own solemn prediction, 
"Then shall appear the sign of the Son of Man in heaven "■," 
of some mysterious appearance of the sign of the Cross. And 
it cannot be denied that our Lord's own words give coun- 
tenance to the interpretation, in that from a very early period 
of His ministry, from the very first mission of the Apostles, 
He spoke to them of the Cross as of that which must be 
taken up in order to follow Him ; thus making it His badge, 
apparently, long before they could know His meaning ^ And 
it is plain that by the time S. Paul wrote his Epistles to the 
Corinthians and Galatians, the " preaching of the Cross" had 
come to be understood as equivalent to the preaching of 
Christianity ; the whole Gospel being denominated from that 
outward and visible thing, which He made the providential 
instrument of the most awful and mysterious fact revealed 
in it. In a word, the exaltation of the Cross above all other 
Christian signs is the most pregnant, or rather the crowning, 
instance of the rule, " He that humbleth himself shall be ex- 
alted," and would lead us to anticipate some signal honour as 
likely to be accounted due to the holy Eucharist, associated 
as that Sacrament inseparably is with what took place on the 

1 1 Apol. 55. may repent and mourn, and we miiy 
■■ S. Matt. xxiv. 30. On which verse exult." And S. Chrysostom, Horn, in 
Origen (iii. 866) says : " The sign of Matt. liv. : " Be not thou asliamed of 
the Son of Man will then appear, so great a good, lest Christ be ashamed 
whereby have been made heavenly, of thee, when He cometh with His 
the things which were in heaven, and glory, and the sign appeareth before 
which were in earth ; i. e. the wonder Him more brilliant than the very sun- 
wrought by the Son hanging on the beam. For indeed the Cross is then 
tree : and in heaven more especially coming, uttering a voice by the very 
His sign shall be bright." And S.Cyril sight of it," &c. And Horn Ixxxvi. : 
of Jerusalem (Catech. xiii. 45) : " This " Then shall appear the sign, i. e. the 
sign shall appear again with Jesus from Cross, being brighter than the sun ; 
heaven. For the King's trophy shall since it appears when the suu is dark- 
lead the way j that seeing Hhu whom ened, and hiding itself." 
they pierced, and by the Cross recog- " S. Matt. x. 38; cf. xvi. 22; S. 
nising the dishonoured One, the Jews Luke xviii. 34. 

Special Honour due to Bethlehem, Nazareth, Calvary. 31 

Cross, and with the further humiliation, that He who made Chap. II. 
and filleth all things doth vouchsafe to veil Himself under 
symbols so cheap and ordinary, (" a little bread and wine*," 
as speaks a devout writer,) and thereby to submit His blessed 
Body to so many reproaches and indignities. 

§ 20. The Name of Jesus being thus honoured above the 
rest of our Lord's Names, and the sign of the Cross above all 
other His Signs, — the Vine, the Lamb, the Fish, the Branch, 
and the like ; — no wonder that among the places made holy 
by His earthly abode or mighty works, those have ever been 
most venerated which saw most of His humiliation and suf- 
ferings; and before all the rest, Nazareth, Bethlehem, and 
Calvary. In the honour paramount to all others, which 
Christendom has ever paid to those three places, we perceive 
an instinctive acknowledgment of our Lord's true Incarna- 
tion and Atonement. Had He been but the chief of men, 
the places of His conception, birth, and death would have 
been indeed exceedingly interesting ; but the interest would 
not have been comparable to what would have been felt in 
visiting Capernaum and the other great scenes of His mi- 
nistry. The constant feeling of Christians on this subject 
has been a witness from age to age of their belief in Him, 
God made Man, and of their yearning to express that belief 
in all holy ceremonies, — religious pilgrimage being one. If, 
through the changed circumstances and habits of the Chris- 
tian world, we are in a way precluded from this or any other 
form of devotion, it is but natural that we should cling the 
more earnestly to those modes and forms which Providence 
still leaves within our reach; jealously guard them, and 
scrupulously make the most of them. If we cannot be pil- 
grims, we will at least, please God, be humble worshippers 
in the holy Eucharist. 

§ 21. Why, again it may be asked, is the term " Son of 
Man" beyond all others His own chosen title, whereby He 
speaks of Himself, and whereby Mis beloved disciple", and first 
martyr' — no others— are permitted to speak of Him ? Not, 
surely, for love's sake only, and to signify how that it is His 

' De Imit. Christi, IV. ii. 5. « Rev. i. 13; xiv. 14. " Acts vii. 56. 

32 Doctrinal Import of the Title, Son of Man. 

Chap. II. delight to be with the sons of men ; but for truth's sake, and 
for doctrine's sake; — or rather, in this question, love, and 
truth, and doctrine are all one. From His first assuming of 
the title when He spake to Nathanael, within three or four 
days of the beginning of His ministry, until the last applica- 
tion of it in Holy Scripture, when S. John saw sitting on a 
cloud " one like unto the Son of Man," — forty-two instances, 
or thereabouts, — we do not find one which is not emphatically 
marked as conveying this lesson, — that all our participation 
of God, or of any good thing, is by way of virtue flowing out 
from Christ's holy Humanity, which is therefore to be spe- 
cially loved, and adored, and trusted in by us, with an in- 
finite love, trust, and adoration : that saying of the wise 
man being eminently appropriate here ; "When ye glorify the 
Lord, exalt Him as much as ye can ; for even yet will He far 
exceed : and when ye exalt Him, put forth all your strength, 
and be not weary; for ye can never go far enough''." 

To take a few signal instances : — As the Son of Man He 
re-opens the miraculous intercourse between heaven and earth, 
now in a manner suspended for many generations. Heaven 
is seen opened, and " the Angels of God ascending and de- 
scending upon the Son of Man." As the Son of Man He is 
in such sense one with God, His Person being truly divine, 
that He is at the same time in heaven and in earth, having 
come down from heaven. He " hath power on earth to for- 
give sins;" "authority" is given Him of the Father "to 
execute judgment;" He is "Lord of the Sabbath;" He will 
one day "confess" His own " before the Angels of God;" it 
is He who " soweth good seed" in the world y. 

But most remarkably is this title connected with His 
oflfice at the last judgment. The Son of Man will be glo- 
rified, will sit on the throne of His glory, will come in the 
glory of His Father with His angels ; His sign will appear 
before Him in heaven ; we shall see Him coming in a cloud 
with power and great glory. His martyrs even now see Him 
by faith at the right hand of God; His friends, in vision 
among the golden lamps, which are His Churches ; and both 

« Ecclus. xliii. 30. ix. 6; S. John v. 27 ; S. Matt. xii. 8 ; 

T S. John i. 52 ; iii. 13 j S. Matt. S. Luke xii. 8; S. Matt. xiii. 37. 

Christ's Miracles taught Reverence for His Body. 33 

friends and enemies will see Him ere long on the cloud, Chap. II. 
which is His throne, about to reap the harvest of the earth ^ 

All these wonders are His work, as He is Son of Man; 
and by the same title He claims to Himself all His mar- 
vellous and mysterious sufferings : He hath not where to lay 
His head; He cometh eating and drinking, to incur the 
Pharisees' reproach; He veileth His greatness, so that a 
word against Him may be forgiven ; He is buried three days 
in the heart of the earth ; He must suffer many things, and 
be set at nought, and will not endure that His disciples 
should disbelieve it ; He must be lifted up, for He is not come 
to destroy raen^s lives, but to save them ; not to be ministered 
unto, but to minister ; He must be betrayed, and go as it is 
written of Him; betrayed by Judas, — betrayed with a kiss*. 

"I, the Son of Man''," — such is the title which from the 
first He had taken to Himself in preference to all others; 
signifying thereby to thoughtful hearts, that He was the 
very seed of the woman, the second Adam promised to undo 
what the first had done. And each successive application of 
the title, whether in the way of power or of endurance, may 
be seen to bring out more and more fully this His gracious 
remedial office. 

We shall see presently how devotion to the title, Son of 
Man, is by His own word connected with devotion to His 
blessed Body. But to appreciate this duly, we must go back 
to the beginning of our Lord's ministry, and consider at 
large what the Gospels record, be it much or little, of things 
said or done by Him, in a way to teach or encourage this 
latter devotion. 

§ 22. Now as we have seen that to the angels our Lord's 
humiliation in the flesh was a mystery, which they had to 
learn by degrees, so to His disciples and friends on earth 
was the exaltation of that flesh ; and they were trained by 
their experience of the virtue which went out of it in the 
way of corporal and physical miracles, to believe in and 

' S.Jolmxii. 23; S.Matt, xix. 28, ib. 40, xvii. 22, xx. 18; S. John xii. 

xvi. 27, xxiv. 30; Acts vii. 56; Rev. 35; S.Luke ix. 56; S.Matt. xx. 28, 

i. 13, xiv. 14. xxvi. 24, ih. 45 ; S. Luke xxii. 48. 

• S. Miitt. viii. 20, xi. 19, xii. 32, •• S. Matt. xvi. 13. 

34 Christ healed commonly by Touching. 

Chap. II. adore its wonder-working presence, when it should be made 
known to them as the very food and medicine of their souls. 
The Forerunner himself declared that he did not at first know 
our Lord. His Person he probably knew, for in the flesh he 
was near akin to Him; he knew so much of Him before He 
came to be baptized, as to decline, if it might be, performing 
such an office for one so far his superior ; but he knew not 
as yet the fulness of the divine economy, for which Jesus 
came into the world; he knew not that this was the very 
Son of God, who was to baptize with the Holy Ghost, ac- 
cording to John's own announcing, and so, i. e. by a dispen- 
sation of sacraments, to fulfil all righteousness, in the justi- 
fication and sanctification of His elecf. 

All this John came to know by the marvellous course of 
our Lord's baptism, and from henceforth he referred his 
disciples directly to our Lord ; and our Lord, accepting their 
implicit faith, promised them, through Nathanael, immediate 
confirmation of it by miracles : and the very next day was 
the first miracle, in Cana of Galilee, Nathanael's home; a 
miracle best explained, surely, as a symbolical preaching of 
the new heaven and the new earth, to be brought into being 
by that participation of Christ whereof Wine was to be a 
principal instrument. 

Then followed that course of miracles in Jerusalem, about 
the time of the first Passover, which brought Nicodemus to 
be instructed, and concerning which He signified to the 
Jews, that they were but the earnest of a greater miracle, 
whereby His Body should be proved to be a true Temple — 
a living Temple — the personal abode of the Word made 
Flesh and dwelling among us. 

§ 23. For the three years afterwards during which " He 
went about doing good, and healing all that were oppressed 
of the devil," it will be found on examination that His ordi- 
nary miracles, by far the greater part of them, were wrought 
not without some visible touch of His Body. There seems 
an incongruity in measuring and counting such things, — 
" the works of God, who maketh all ;" yet since He has con- 
descended to set down for our learning a certain number of 
' See this proved by S. Augustine, in Job. tr. v. 

Exception in the case of Demoniacs. 85 

them, it cannot be wrong to take notice of that number ; Chap. II. 
and so it is, that if you reckon up the miracles of healing 
especially recorded as wrought by Christ in the flesh, you 
will, I believe, find that two-thirds, twenty-two out of thirty- 
three, were wrought, as was said, by the Touch, immediate or 
virtual, of His Body. 

§ 24. The exceptions are, first. Five instances in which He 
had to do with unclean spirits; for, whatever were the rea- 
son, it does seem that He never laid His hand upon de- 
moniacs. The distinction is strongly marked in one of the 
first instances, towards the beginning of the Gospel : " In 
the Synagogue," at Capernaum, "there was a man which 
had a spirit of an unclean devil*^," who did as it were chal- 
lenge and defy the Holy One ; him Jesus rebuked, " saying. 
Hold thy peace, and come out of him. And when the devil 
had thrown him in the midst, he came out of him, and hurt 
him not. And they were all amazed, and spake among 
themselves, saying, What a word is this ! for with authority 
and power He commandeth the unclean spirits, and they 
come out^." Presently after, on leaving the synagogue. He 
went " into Peter's house. He saw his wife's mother laid, and 
sick of a fever. And He touched her hand, and the fever 
left her: and she arose, and ministered unto them^'' The 
evil spirit He cast out with a word ; the sick woman He took 
by the hand and lifted her up. 

These two miracles, occurring in the middle of the day, 
were followed the same evening by multitudes in each kind; 
in all of which, as we learn by comparison of the several 
accounts, the same difi'erence was observable. S. Matthew 
says, " When the even was come, they brought unto Hira 
many that were possessed with devils : and He cast out the 
spirits with His word, and healed all that were sick=;" and 
S. Luke adds how these latter were healed : "He laid His 
hands on every one of them, and healed them^." As to the 
unclean spirits, he mentions them apart in the next verse ; 
" and devils also came out of many, crying out, and saying. 
Thou art Christ the Son of God'." 

■• S. Luke iv. 33. « Ibid. 35, 36. ' S. Matt. viii. 14, 15. 

' Ibid. 16. >> S. Luke iv. 40. ' Ibid. 41. 


36 Probable Meaning of the Exceptions. 

Chap. II. Again, at the great manifestation of Himself which ac- 
companied the ordination of the twelve, we are told by an- 
other Evangelist nearly in the same words, " He had healed 
many; insomuch that they pressed upon Him for to touch 
Him, as many as had plagues. And unclean spirits, when 
they saw Him, fell down before Him, and cried, saying, 
Thou art the Son of GodJ." 

The only case recorded of His touching a possessed person 
is that which occurred just after the Transfiguration. "When 
Jesus saw that the people came running together, He rebuked 
the foul spirit, saying unto him, Thou dumb and deaf spirit, 
I charge thee, come out of him, and enter no more into him. 
And the spirit cried, and rent him sore, and came out of 
him : and he was as one dead ; insomuch that many said. 
He is dead. But Jesus took him by the hand, and lifted 
him up ; and he arose''/' This, however, it will be presently 
seen, is no exception, but critically confirms our allegation. 
The devil was cast out by His mere word ; when He touched 
, the sufferer's hand, and lifted him up, it was but to revive 
him from his exhaustion, — the dispossession being before 

We may reverently ask, why this distinction? and we 
seem to have an answer, if we may assume the course of our 
Lord's miracles generally to be symbolical of the greater in- 
visible miracles which He was to work by His Spirit in His 
Church ; i. e. of His holy sacramental system ; according to 
His most true promise, — " Verily, verily, I say unto you. He 
that believeth on Me, the works that I do shall he do also ; 
and greater works than these shall he do ; because I go unto 
My Father'." On that hypothesis, the spiritual exorcism 
which must go before the spiritual touch of Christ, — so dis- 
tracting and agonizing, sometimes, even in its outward and 
visible effects, — may well be represented by the spirit's cry- 
ing out, tearing and rending the poor patient, at the very sight 
of his Deliverer, and much more at the command to " come 
out of the man ;" and the purifying, strengthening, refresh- 
ing grace of the two great Sacraments, whereby we are made 
participators of Christ, answers to His loving and powerful 
J S. Mark ui. 10, 11. '' S. Mark ix. 25—27. ' S. John xiv. 12. 

Laying on of Hands associated with Healing. 37 

Touch, taking him, as he lay, by the right hand, and lifting Chap. II. 
him up. 

§ 25. Six other cases occur in which, for aught we see, 
our Lord might have touched the person, and it pleased 
Him to heal with a word only. In each of these we may 
observe, I think, unusual stress laid in the narrative on the 
Faith of the person receiving the cure, or of those by whom 
he was presented to our Lord. Two of them happened at 
Capernaum, to persons of rank. The nobleman, somewhat 
tardy in his belief, was however rewarded for it when it 
came, by our Lord healing his son at a distance ; the Cen- 
turion, his townsman, in his good and ready confession at 
once of Christ's power and of his own unworthiness, shewed 
a faith marvellous even to Jesus Christ Himself. Of those 
who brought the man sick of the palsy we read, " Jesus seeing 
their faith ,'' forgave and healed him — not without some trial 
of the sufferer's own faith also; for it was a great trial to so 
helpless a person to set about obeying the command, " Arise, 
take up thy bed and go unto thine house." The like may 
be said of what happened at the pool of Bethesda, and of 
the man bidden to stretch forth his withered hand ; and, in 
a different way, of the ten lepers setting out to shew them- 
selves to the priests. By these comparatively rare examples 
our Lord may have designed to symbolize the necessity of 
faith in all capable receivers of sacraments, and the suffi- 
ciency of it in certain cases without literally receiving ; ac- 
cording to the principle, Gratia Dei non est alligata sacra- 

§ 26. But however this may be, the general fact is obvious 
to the most cursory reader of the Gospel, that almost as soon 
as ever He came to be known by His miraculous cures, the 
touch of His blessed Body came also to be known as the ordi- 
nary visible mean whereby He performed them. Beginning 
from Simon's house and the streets of Capernaum, " the fame 
of Him went out into all Syria," not only of His healing, but 
of His touching or laying on of hands in order to heal"*. 
Thenceforth we meet with such sayings as, " Come and lay 
Thine hand upon her, and she shall live ;" the deaf and the 

» Cf. S. Luko vi. 19. 

38 Reserve exemplified in some Miracles. 

Chap, ii. blind are brought to Him, with a request that He would lay 
His hands upon them ; mighty works are said to be done by 
His Hands ; He could do no mighty works at Nazareth, save 
that " He laid His hands upon a few sick folk ;" — the turn of 
expression indicates how completely the idea of mighty works 
of healing was associated in the writer's mind with laying on 
of hands. Indeed, it could not well be otherwise, seeing that 
our Lord Himself, promising miraculous power to the first 
generation at least of those who should believe, had used the 
same form : " they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall 
recover"^." After a while it came into the heart of the humble 
person with the issue of blood to come and touch the hem of 
His garment; and, instead of a reproof for superstition, she 
received not only the virtue which went out of Him to heal 
her, but also His solemn approval, and a blessing on her 
faith. And this, too, spread abroad; so that a short time 
after, " wheresoever He entered, into villages, or cities, or 
country, they laid the sick in the streets, and besought Him 
that they might touch if it were but the border of His gar- 
ment : and as many as touched Him were made whole"." 

It should seem, moreover, that an additional sanction to 
this popular notion is supplied by each of those remarkable 
cases in which our Lord was pleased to withdraw Himself, 
and deal in a peculiar way with certain sufferers; such as 
the deaf and dumb man in S. Mark vii. Being asked only 
to lay His hand on him. He takes him apart from the mul- 
titude, puts His fingers into his ears, spits, and touches his 
tongue ; and again, at Bethsaida, a blind man is brought to 
Him with the same petition : " and when He had spit on his 
eyes, and put His hands upon him. He asked him if he saw 
ought. And he looked up, and said, I see men as trees, 
walking. After that He put His hands again upon his eyes, 
and made him look up : and he was restored, and saw every 
man clearly i'." And then the well-known cure of the man born 
blind, in S. John ix., which also seems to have taken place in 
private : " He spat on the ground, and made clay of the spittle, 
and He anointed the eyes of the blind man with the clay, and 
said unto him. Go, wash in the pool of Siloam, (which is by 

» S. Mark xvi. 18. " lb. vi. 56. "> lb. viii. 23. 

The Five Loaves, and the Discourse ensuing. 39 

interpretation, Sent). He went his way therefore, and washed. Chap. II. 
and came seeing." These may well remind us of the singular 
and exact discipline ever observed when the Church was free 
to use it; the cure of all inward evils being one and the 
same,— the Body and Blood of Christ, — but the time and 
mode of its application, and the degree of tender and cha- 
ritable reserve employed, varying much with the specialities 
of the case. 

§ 27. The minds of the disciples, and indeed of all within 
hearing of our Lord, being thus providentially trained to 
think much of His blessed Body as the instrument of all good 
to them; and also, as we have seen, to regard His title. 
Son of Man, as indicating rather than any other the relation 
in which He vouchsafed to stand to them ; it could not but 
strike them deeply (such as were at all thoughtful among 
them), and dwell much upon their minds, when towards the 
beginning of the third year of His ministry (a time of many 
great revelations concerning Himself), He bound the two 
ideas together in the way recorded by S. John. He told 
them, first, that the Son of Man should give them meat ; 
secondly, that this meat was only to be had by eating His 
flesh and drinking His blood ; and, thirdly, that this was to 
be done in a heavenly, supernatural manner — a manner cog- 
nizable only by faith, since it would be consistent with their 
seeing "the Son of Man ascend up where He was before^." 
If the title, " Son of Man," as the Church has always believed, 
means the Second Adam, the root of life as Adam of death, — 
coming in a true body to save men's bodies as well as their 
souls, — what were they to imagine of this eating unto life, but 
that it should be as real and true, as was that by which Adam 
ate unto death? a real and true eating of His real and true 
Body, which should constitute a great and indispensable por- 
tion of the marvellous system of divine mercies now in course 
of being revealed to them. It is plain they did so under- 
stand Him ; why otherwise should they be offended ? Had 
the eating and drinking been commonly understood, as some 
writers think, to be a sort of parable, a figure to express tho 

^1 S. .lohn vi. 27, 53, 62. 

40 Meaning of the Seven Loaves, 

receiving our Lord's doctrine, there was nothing in that 
saying so hard, but they might very well have borne with it. 
But we see that at the time it was taken by all, both friends 
and enemies, as a great and real mystery, and that it proved 
just the same sort of trial to the Jews who drew back, to the 
Eleven who believed, though they could not understand, and 
to Judas, who remained with Christ in hypocrisy, as the Holy 
Communion has evermore been to rejectors and unworthy 
receivers on the one hand, and to faithful communicants on 
the other. 

It must not be overlooked, that around these great sayings 
are gathered, as it were, a group of miraculous doings, every 
one suggesting more or less plainly the supernatural virtue 
of our Lord's body. First they came to Him and He healed 
their sicknesses; then — not without His taking them into 
His hands and breaking them — the loaves were multiplied and 
distributed ; then in His true flesh, by the power of His true 
Godhead, He walked on the water; then He communicated 
virtue to His favoured Apostle to do the same ; and when he 
was sinking and cried out, " Jesus stretched forth His hand 
and caught him ;" finally, " when they were gone over, they 
came into the land of Gennesaret : and when the men of 
that place had knowledge of Him, they sent out into all that 
country round about, and brought unto Him all that were 
diseased; and besought Him that they might only touch the 
hem of His garment : and as many as touched were made 
perfectly whole ^" 

§ 28. And what if the other miracle, happening so soon 
after, and recalling this by so many circumstances, were 
intended to represent the great doctrine and ordinance under 
another of its "aspects?" I mean the feeding of the four 
thousand with seven loaves and a few small fishes ^ If the 
former miracle was typical of the Eucharist, as by the con- 
sent of Christendom (one may say) it most certainly was, it 
seems hard not to associate the later one also with that 
sacrament. And if, as ancient writers teach*, and as the 

' S. Matt. xiv. 35, 36. cepistis, vos estis quod accepistis. Apo- 

• S. Matt. XV. 32; S.Mark viii. 1. stoliis enim dicit, 'Unus panis, unum 
» S,Aug. Serin. 227 : "Si bene ac- corpus, multi suinus.' Sic exposuit Sa- 

and of the "few small Fishes" 41 

chief of the schoolmen undoubtedly taught, (grounding their Chap. II. 
opinion mainly upon S.Paul's saying, "For we being many 
are one bread and one body : for we are all partakers of that 
one bread ;") the Church, or mystical body of Christ, may be 
regarded as present by the real presence of His heavenly 
and glorified Body, and so as constituting — in a secondary 
sense, and one infinitely below the glory and dignity of the 
other, yet in a very true sense— the res sacramenti, or thing 
signified in Holy Communion"; then the circumstances of 
the miracle in question may seem to make it a sufficiently 
apt parable for the expression of that doctrine. The twelve 
loaves being a known symbol in the old dispensation for the 
twelve tribes, i. e. for the whole Jewish Church, and as such 
presented day by day in the temple ; and seven being the 
number which from the beginning, in the figurative language 
of Scripture, had represented completeness'^; the seven loaves, 
by no forced analogy, might be taken to represent the whole 
Christian Church, and the partaking of them after Christ's 
special blessing, to signify that union and incorporation of 
Christians one with another, which, depending on their union 
with Christ their Head, is perfected more and more by every 
sacramental participation of Him ; according to His own 
prayer, offered in conjunction with the very original Eu- 
charist : " That they all may be one, as Thou, Father, art in 
Me, and I in Thee, that they also may be one in Us y." 

And since the Fish is an acknowledged emblem both of our 
Lord and of His members, and in the former miracle the two 
fishes are considered by S. Augustine^ to represent Christ in 
His two characters of King and Priest, it might not, per- 
haps, be straining the exposition of this latter miracle too far, 
were we to conjecture that the few small fishes which " He 
blessed and commanded to be also set before them," might 

cramentum Mensae Dominicse." Cf. 4 : " Duplex est res hujvis Sacramenti 

Serui. 229, 272. " Si vos estia Corpus . . . una quidem, qua est significata ct 

Christi et membra, mysteriuin vestrnm contcnta, scilicet ipse Christus; alia 

in mcnsii Dominica posituin est : mys- autem est significata et non contenta, 

terium vestrum accipitis." scilicet Corpus Christi niysticum, quod 

■ Aquinas, Summ. Theol. p. iii. qu. est societas Sanctorum." 
60. 3 : " In Sacramento Altaris est * S. Aug. Serm. xcv. 2. 

duplex res significata, scilicet Corpus ^ S. John xvii. 21. 

Christi vcnnn ct niysticum ;" qu. 80. * De divcrsis quajst. Lxi. 2, t. vii. 25. 

42 Other mysterious Hints concerning His Body. 

Chap. II. represent the holy martyrs and other eminent saints, few, and 
very small in comparison, but in some especial manner and 
degree having Christ imparted to them more than to the 
rest, and therefore especially called by the same title with 
Him ; and the partaking of those fishes may answer to the 
Communion of Saints, as that of the loaves to our portion 
in the holy Catholic Church. The four thousand may be 
the multitudes coming iu from the four winds of heaven — 
north, south, east, and west, — to sit down with Abraham, 
Isaac, and Jacob in the spiritual feast, the kingdom of 
heaven. If the old method of interpretation be at all 
allowed, this would seem no improbable account of the 
second miraculous feast, occurring so soon after the first, 
and tending in its degree to deepen the impression that the 
Body of Christ was to be, in some mysterious Avay, all iu all 
to those who should be saved by Him. 

§ 29. Very shortly after, but not until His Divine nature 
also had been more openly than ever declared to His disciples, 
by the benediction pronounced to S. Peter on his confession, 
— nor yet until He had begun to predict to them in detail 
what He was to suffer, — He took His three chosen into a 
high mountain apart, and shewed them that Body, in which 
He had so many ways invited them to trust, transfigured, — 
His face shining as the sun, and His raiment white as the 
light; — thereby, as it may appear, giving them to under- 
stand something of the properties of His glorious Body ; at 
the same time that, by the discourse in their hearing with 
Moses and Elias, He prepared them to see it in the lowest 
humiliation and suffering. And twice on the same occasion 
He taught them to believe that it was, and always would be, 
a real Body ; and as such the instrument of all good to all 
believers, by touching, first, the three saints, (as Ezekiel 
and Daniel had been touched of old,) and so enabling them 
to endure the beatific vision ; and presently afterwards by 
touching the young man out of whom the evil spirit had 
been cast, and restoring him to his father, and to the state 
of probation and hope. 

Between the Transfiguration and the week of our Lord's 
Passion there is nothing on record to draw attention to the 

The Anointing at Bethany. 48 

prerogatives of His blessed Body, if we except perhaps what Chap II, 
took place at the Peast of Tabernacles, in the last year of 
His preaching, — when, having asserted His Godhead, and 
seeing that the Jews were taking up stones to stone Him, 
Jesus made Himself invisible, " and went out of the temple, 
going through the midst of them, and so passed by^" And 
"passing by,'' He healed the man bhnd from His birth; 
not without spitting, and making clay of the spittle, and 
anointing the eyes of the blind man with the clay ; pro- 
ceedings well calculated to impress those who knew of His 
Transfiguration, especially, with an increasing awe towards 
that Body which they saw so marvellously and peculiarly 
gifted, beyond the bodies of the sons of men; and with a 
wondering expectation what Almighty God might be on the 
point of working thereby. 

§ 30. The Holy "Week itself begins with the anointing at 
Bethany, commended by our Lord Himself to all ages as a 
signal instance of devotion to His blessed Body, and ever 
understood by the holy Church as a warrant for sparing no 
trouble nor expense in providing for that Service, which ac- 
knowledges the mysterious continuance of the same among 
us. She must not be troubled nor interfered with; "she 
hath done it for My burial ;" — it was as impossible for her 
to help doing it now, as it was for her, or one very like 
her, to abstain from the like loving worship, when she first 
came to Me, loving much, and hoping, as far as she might 
dare hope, to have much forgiven ; — as impossible as it will 
be within a few days for her not to wait on Me with spices 
and ointments, when I am to be laid in My grave ; — " trou- 
ble her not,'' " she hath done what she could ;" " she hath 
wrought a good work on Me ^." And why was that work 
so significantly decreed to be spoken of throughout " the 
whole world," but that all might understand that they could 
not go too far in loving, honouring, adoring that Body which 
He had vouchsafed to take into His divine Person, by which 
He was about to save the world, which was soon to endure 
such humiliation for our sake, as nothing could equal, save 
the glory to which it was afterwards to be visibly exalted for 
our perfect salvation ? 

• S. John viii. 58. '' S. Matt. xxvi. 11. 

44 The Passion : the Water and Blood. 

Chap. II. Moreover, in close connection with this comes another 
thought, indescribably fearful, as it seems to me, if we carry- 
it out: — what manner of man he was who suggested to his 
fellow-disciples to have indignation and count it " waste," as 
though too much were being made of Christ's real, and then 
visible. Body, and the poor. His mystical body, were being 

Others in their simplicity for a moment adopted the 
notion, but they presently received His correction; Judas, 
who had devised the scruple in hypocrisy, refusing to be 
corrected, (though never surely were such gracious warnings 
addressed to any one that we read of,) went out to commit 
the two most outrageous sins that could be committed against 
that blessed Body: first partaking of it with a heart and 
mind actually at the moment determined on betraying it, 
and so actually betraying it, as far as in him lay, to Satan, 
who forthwith entered into him ; and afterwards, openly in 
the sight of man betraying it — betraying the Son of Man — 
by a kiss ; — the loving penitent's token of adoration was the 
hypocrite's token of insult and unearthly malice. 

And then, as if to prove that the holy Flesh which endured 
all this, and was about to endure much more, was still, as 
ever, the Temple of the divine glory; first, by shewing Him- 
self, and declaring, " I am He," He forced His assailants to 
recoil and fall to the ground, either on their faces in involun- 
tary worship, or backwards as in despair. Presently after- 
wards He touched Malchus' ear, and healed him. The cure 
was wrought by His touch, as in so many instances before. 
And since the man had been hurt in laying rude hands upon 
His Body, the healing may be received as a merciful token, 
that even unworthy communicants are not shut out from His 
mercy, and the benefit of the mysteries which they have pro- 
faned, except they persist in unworthiness. 

§ 31. Then it was that our blessed Redeemer, withdrawing, 
as it were. His power into Himself, gave up His Body to the 
sacrifice, with the words, " This is your hour, and the power 
of darkness." His disciples understood Him to signify that 
nothing more could be done for Him, and they might as 
well forsake Him and fly ; His enemies, both on earth and 
in hell, knew that they were left to do their worst with Him; 

Tone of the Evangelist in recording it. 45 

and they did it unsparingly ; and while His Body was, in Chap. II. 
fact, winning the decisive and eternal victory for which He 
came into the world, it seemed to the eyes of men, perhaps 
of all creatures, to be surrendered, for good and all, to suf- 
fering and insult. But the first thing seen, when the pre- 
ternatural darkness was over, and the light of day was again 
permitted to shine upon the cross and those standing by it, 
was the blood and water, flowing out from our Saviour's 
side, as soon as ever He was certainly known to be dead. 

There is no need here to explain at large the symbolical 
and sacramental meaning of that miracle, — a meaning wit- 
nessed by all antiquity, and adopted by the Church of Eng- 
land especially in her office of Holy Baptism, where she de- 
clares that, " for the forgiveness of our sins, Christ shed out 
of His most precious side both Water and Blood." "His 
most precious side :" the very phrase instinctively indicates 
what all devout persons have felt towards that sacred Form, 
drawn to it the more by this parting insult from those who 
were bent upon making themselves every way " guilty of the 
Body and Blood of Christ our Saviour." 

We may perhaps realize those feelings most efl'ectually, 
by reverently imagining how they may have begun in the 
heart and mind of the beloved disciple, chosen by the Holy 
Ghost to testify the transaction to us, and of the blessed 
Virgin, and other holy women ; the special alarm and horror 
which they must have felt as they watched the brutal soldiery 
breaking the legs of the two malefactors, and approaching 
their Lord's cross with the same intent ; the comparative re- 
lief when they saw that all that was done was ignorantly and 
wantonly to pierce His unconscious side; the awful sense of 
Divine interference and of Divine consolation, when, knowing 
that He was already dead, they saw the stream gush out, not 
of blood only, but of water and blood. Probably, indeed, 
it was in this instance as is noted elsewhere in S. John's 
Gospel •= : "These things understood not His disciples at the 
first : but when Jesus was glorified, then remembered they 
that these things were written of Him, and that" His ene- 
mies " had done these things unto Him." Yet the very tone 

*= Chap. xii. 16. 

46 Sacramental Presence taught in \ 8. John v. 6 — 9. 

Chap. II. of the narrative implies that even at that moment of exceed- 
ing grief and dismay, the Evangelist's mind — as often happens 
when dearest friends are departing — was deeply impressed 
with the circumstance, and would naturally go on wondering 
what it could mean. " He that saw it bare record, and his 
record is true : and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye 
might believe*^." Perhaps it should be written "He know- 
eth," for the Greek words {KaKelvos olhev) will bear that con- 
struction ; as though the historian were saying with S. Paul, 
" Behold, before God, I lie not." But that it should be in- 
serted with such an asseveration, calling such peculiar atten- 
tion to it, in this which may be eminently called the theolo- 
gical Gospel, — for this, we might reverently conjecture, if we 
did not know, some deep theological reason must probably 
exist. As it is, the knowledge of the reason is vouchsafed to 
us ; it is indicated in the Scripture quoted. The saying, " A 
bone of Him shall not be broken," carries with it the sacri- 
ficial character of our Lord's Passion, that it was the very 
antitype of slaying the Paschal lamb. And again, "They 
shall look on Him whom they pierced" is the prophetic de- 
claration of the mode of applying His Passion to the remis- 
sion of His people's sins: the "piercing" is the opening of 
" a fountain for sin and for uncleanness ;" and it is signified 
that it would not take full effect until the Lord had " poured 
out upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of 
Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of supplications ;" i.e. until 
a beginning had been given to Christian baptism by the 
descent of the Holy Ghost upon the apostles gathered on 
Mount Zion, and the setting up of the kingdom of heaven. 

And the rationale, the principle of all this, is shadowed out 
in the farewell letter of the same Evangelist : " This is He 
that came by water and blood, even Jesus Christ; not by 
water only, but by water and blood. And it is the Spirit 
that beareth witness, because the Spirit is truth. For there 
are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, 
and the Holy Ghost : and these three are one. And there 
are three that bear witness in earth, the spirit, and the water, 
and the blood : and these three agree in one. If we receive 

■* S. John xix. 35. 

Allusions to the Work of the Spirit in the Sacraments. 47 

the witness of men, the witness of God is greater : for this Chap. II. 
is the witness of God which He hath testified of His Son." 
What is this threefold witness, this witness of God, on which 
the Apostle would thus unreservedly rest our faith ? It is 
Jesus Christ, God incarnate, coming to His Church, and 
to each one of us, by water, by blood, and by His Spirit. 
To His whole Church He came by water, when, as the surety 
and representative of His people. He was baptized by S.John 
in Jordan; by blood, when He died on the cross; by His 
Spirit, on the Day of Pentecost. To each several child of 
Adam, whom He takes out of the world as one of His own, 
He comes by all three at once — by the Spirit, by water, and 
by blood, — in His two Sacraments, the one as well as the 
other : for water in Scripture signifies sanctification and 
cleansing; blood signifies satisfaction and atonement; and 
both these are, by His ordinance, in both the Sacraments, 
because in both the true gift is Participation of Christ, our 
life and our all, begun in Baptism, continued and growing 
in the Eucharist. And they are in the Sacraments by the 
special operation of His Spirit : " It is the Spirit that beareth 
witness, because the Spirit is Truth." The Spirit is that 
Truth which both declares and makes them to be what they 
signify, as our Lord declared of one of them : " The words 
that I speak unto you, they are spirit and they are life ;" 
the words in this case being, for the one, " This is My 
Body ;" for the other, " I baptize thee in the Name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." And ac- 
cordingly the Church, expressly or virtually, has always prayed 
for this descent of the Holy Ghost, — in Baptism, to " sanc- 
tify the water to the mystical washing away of sin ;" in Holy 
Communion, according to the old Liturgies, to make the ele- 
ments what our Lord declared them to be ; according to our 
own Liturgy, to make us, receiving them, partakers of those 
holiest things. 

To this doctrine, probably to expressions of it even then 
in liturgical use, the Apostle alludes more than once : " By 
one Spirit are we all baptized into one Body"^." And else- 

• 1 Cor. xii. 13. 

48 Sacraments, tJie Extension of the Incarnation. 

Chap. II. where^ the Church service is described partly by the use in 
it of Psalms and hymns in the way of response (so we may 
best understand " speaking to yourselves/') partly by its in- 
volving a continual sacrifice of thanksgiving, and that for all, 
in the Name of Christ, to the Father, — a definition of a 
Christian Liturgy, as far as it goes, critically exact. 

We may add the often-quoted passage in Rom. xv. 16: 
" That I might be a minister of Jesus Christ unto the Gen- 
tiles, doing a priest's work in respect of the Gospel of God^; 
that the offering of the Gentiles might be acceptable, being 
sanctified by the Holy Ghost;" where S. Paul represents 
his calling as a missionary by an image borrowed from his 
other calling as a priest, the body of Gentile Christians being 
that which he had to offer, and requiring, in order to be ac- 
ceptable, sanctification by the Holy Ghost, as the proper 
sacrifice of Christians did. 

In a word, the patristical doctrine, that the Incarnation is 
not only applied, but extended as it were, by the blessed Sa- 
craments, supplies the sufficient and only interpretation, 
both of the mysterious opening of the Redeemer's side on 
the cross, when He was in the sleep of death, and of that 
which is always referred to by antiquity as the ordained type 
of that circumstance in the Passion, the piercing of the first 
Adam's side in his sleep, and the formation or building up of 
that which was taken out of it into the first woman, his 
spouse, and the mother of us all. 

And (it is a serious and alarming thought) if there be any 
who now scorn the doctrine, wilfully I mean, and in spite of 
helps to know better, we know for certain that they will 
not always scorn it. Holy Scripture tells of a moment to 
come, when that wound in our Lord's side, the fountain of 
Sacraments, and the door of life to us all, will be openly 
seen by all. " Every eye shall see Him, and they also who 
pierced Him:" even they who, by abusing His Sacrifice and 
Sacraments, shall have crucified and pierced Him afresh. 

' " Speaking to yourselves in Psalms in the Name of our Lord Jesus Christ." 

and hymns and spiritual songs, singing — Eph. v. 19, 20. 

and making melody in your hearts to « Upovpyovvra -rh (vayytKiov tow 

the Lord; giving thanks always for @fov, 
all things unto God and the Father 

Nothing in Scripture to check Devotion to Christ's Body. 49 

The scar in His side will be to them an especial condemna- Chap. II. 

tion, as it will be a pledge of grace received and not wasted 

to all penitent and devout receivers. It is S. John again 

to whom this was revealed^; the disciple whom Jesus loved 

is throughout, by special Providence, the great teacher of 

the doctrine of His life-giving Body, and of the devotion 

due to it. 

§ 32. But whatever beginnings of high and hopeful thought 
the miracle of the water and blood may have occasioned 
in S. John's mind, to the outward eye the blessed Body 
was still in the lowest and most pitiable condition, — in the 
hands of enemies, exposed to the worst indignities, — until 
the moment when Joseph of Arimathea begged it of Pilate. 
This must have been an hour or two after our Lord's death ; 
for He gave up the Ghost at three, p.m., and, although the 
Sabbath did not begin until six, it seems that the taking 
down from the cross, the wrapping in linen clothes with the 
spices, and the entombment itself, had to be somewhat hastily 
performed. Some time, therefore, had probably elapsed be- 
tween the piercing of Christ's side and the application of 
Joseph to Pilate; and since Nicodemus was near, a colleague 
of Joseph's, and known to have looked favourably on Christ, it 
is not perhaps exceeding the bounds of reasonable conjecture, 
if we suppose S. John to have applied to him, and through 
him to Joseph, whose own new tomb was known to be near 
at hand, but who was not yet known for a favourer of our 
Lord, as Nicodemus was, and therefore, perhaps, less obnox- 
ious to the Pharisees. And so, between them, though ac- 
cording to His condescension, our Lord's grave would have 
been " with the wicked," yet He was " with the rich in His 
death" and obsequies; unintentional testimony being thus 
borne by Pilate and others of His persecutors, that " He had 
done no violence, neither was any deceit in His mouth." 

Whatever the process may have been, whether it origi- 
nated with S. John or no, we know for certain that, from 
that moment forward. His true servants have never ceased to 
shew, in all possible ways, their entire devotion and love to 
that Blessed Body, enhanced beyond measure by all that they 

'• Rev. i. 7. 


50 Instances of Devotion to Christ's risen Body, 

Chap, II. were permitted to see and know of Its mysterious agonies; 
and never was one word uttered from above to stay or check 
them, or imply that they were going too far. When Corne- 
lius fell down at S. Peter's feet to worship him, he was told, 
"Stand up; I myself also am a man.^' When S. John did the 
like to the angel who was shewing him the heavenly vision, 
he was stopped by what, among men, would have been an 
exclamation of religious horror : " See thou do it not : I am 
thy fellow-servant, and of thy brethren that have the tes- 
timony of Jesus : worship God'." But nowhere in Holy 
Scripture will you find anything at all answering to this in 
respect of the worship and reverence shewn to Christ's Body, 
as if it were possible to exaggerate or carry it too far ; not one 
letter or syllable to interrupt or moderate the deep devotion 
of the Church for all these centuries that she has remained, 
with the beloved disciple, standing by the Cross, and with 
adoring love and wonder contemplating the blood and water 
as it flows from His pierced side; seeing it, and bearing 
record, — and her record is true, and she knoweth that she 
saith true, that we all might believe. 

What, indeed, is the history of the three days of Christ's 
burial, and of the forty days after His resurrection, but a 
course of solemn acts of worship to His real Bodily Presence, 
offered on His servants' part and accepted on His own ? 

There are Joseph and Nicodemus, and the holy women, 
laying Him in the grave with their myrrh and spices, such 
as they knew that the Holy Ghost, by the prophets, had ap- 
pointed to be offered to the King's Son. 

There are the Maries coming to the sepulchre in the early 
morning to complete their religious purpose, and she first 
who loved best : and they have a great reward — they are 
permitted to be the first to see His risen Body, and hear His 
voice ; and as soon as they see and hear, they worship ; and 
so (as has been often noted) they obtain the privilege of 
preaching the Gospel of the Resurrection to the very Apo- 
stles themselves. 

There is S. John, who by his presence beneath the Cross, 
and when our Lord's side was pierced, may be supposed 

' Rev. xix. 10. 

during the Great Forty Days. 51 

to have learned deeper thoughts of the prerogatives of His Chap. II. 
Body than were yet familiar to any of the rest. As he 
was first of the Apostles at the sepulchre, so was he first to 
believe without seeing, and to recognise our Lord appear- 
ing suddenly at a distance''; even as many years afterwards 
he knew Him by sight through all His glory in the heavens, 
in the midst of the golden candlesticks, and on the cloud 
of judgment, discerning " one like unto the Son of Man^." 
Certainly it is a remarkable fact, that the two most noted 
and most highly-favoured for their special love of our Lord, 
the Magdalen and the beloved disciple, should thus be 
marked out for their especial devotion to His Body. 

Then there is His sudden appearance on the road to the 
two disciples, and His no less sudden vanishing out of their 
sight, just as their eyes were opened, and they had come to 
know Him in the act of breaking of bread ; a history, the 
significancy of which in our present argument surely needs 
no elucidation; as neither do the circumstances of His last 
appearance that evening, — the entry through the closed 
doors, the real Body with Its real scars, and Its real partici- 
pation of meat with them, at the same time that It was visi- 
bly breathing His own and His Father's Spirit into their 
hearts, and audibly giving them that commission which none 
could give but He that is equal with the Father. Who does 
not feel, as he reads or hears, a deepening veneration and 
inward worship of the holy Humanity of Him who thus spake 
and acted ? How much more those who saw Him all along 
with their eyes ! who " looked upon" Him, and " handled 
with their hands" Him who is " the Word of Life™ !" 

A week more, and the doubts of S. Thomas are removed 
by the touch of the holy Body with Its scars, or rather, by 
that permission to touch It, whereby the timid Apostle might 
discern the omniscience of the speaker. With confirmed 
faith he makes his confession, the very confession of devout 
communicants in all ages, — " It is my Lord and my God.'* 
Observe the answer he received, — a blessing, not so imme- 
diately for himself as for us, whose trial is, that the same 
Lord and Christ, the same Son of God Incarnate, is present 

■■ S.John xxi. 7. ' Rev. i. 13; xiv. 14. » 1 S. John i. 1. 

£ 2 

52 The Presence of Christ risen at the Disciples' Meals. 

Chap. II. with us, and permits us to touch Him, as really indeed, hut 
invisibly, and in a different kind of presence. " Blessed are 
they now, and blessed shall they all be hereafter, who shall 
believe and worship as thou now dost, without waiting for 
the actual sight, which has at last convinced thee.'' These 
are not words to make a Christian afraid of believing too 
much of his Lord's Presence in Holy Communion, or of 
adoring Him too earnestly. 

§ 33. Rather it might perhaps not untruly be said, that 
one apparent purpose of our Lord's abode upon earth during 
those forty days was, that He might inure them to the faith 
and contemplation of a certain Presence of His now spiritual- 
ized Body among them, occasional only, and in the highest 
degree mysterious, but in itself most real and blessed, and 
associated with all the best gifts and fruits of His Incarna- 
tion — the evidence and conveyance of the eternal life to 
which He had risen. This Presence the sacred narrative 
(we may almost say) studiously connects with the meals 
which He took with them ; as at Emmaus, as He sat at meat 
with them, He took the loaf, and blessed, and brake and 
gave to them, recalling to their very eyes the miracle of the 
five thousand and its antitype — the greater miracle of the 
Eucharist. The same day, at evening, having shewn them 
' His hands and His feet, while they yet believed not for 
joy, and wondered. He said unto them. Have ye here any 
meat? And they gave Him a piece of a broiled fish, and of 
an honeycomb. And He took it, and did eat before them"." 
The following Sunday, as it may seem. He appeared unto 
the eleven (Thomas having now taken his place among 
them) " as they sat at meat." The remarkable appearance 
and miracle at the sea of Galilee, related in the last chapter 
of the last Gospel, and considered by S. Augustine" as ex- 
hibiting a kind of link or transition from Christ's earthly to 
His heavenly kingdom, had for its visible and immediate 
occasion the present hunger and destitution of the disciples. 
They had caught nothing that night ; the morning light 

" S. Luke xxiv. 40 — 43. dis, et in captura piscium commenda- 

" In S. Joan. Evang. Tr. 122 : — verit Ecclesife Sacramentuin, qualis 

" Narratur hie quemadmoduin se ma- futura est ultima resurrectioue mortu- 

nifestaverit Domiuus ad mare Tiberia- orum." 

Significance of His partaking with them. 53 

shewed Him to them standing on the shore, but not, as yet, Chaf. II. 
recognised by them. He enquires of them, " Children, have 
ye any meat?" They answer. No. He tells them where 
to cast their net ; they obey, and in a moment it is full of 
great fishes ; and not only so, but, before they could land 
any of these, their condescending Lord had provided for 
them "a fire of coals, and fish laid thereon, and bread ;" and 
His word is to them, " Come and dine ;" or, in more modern 
language, " Take your morning meal." Then, and not be- 
fore, the disciples knew that it was the Lord. It was the 
third time of His shewing Himself to any number of them 
together, and each time had been at a meal. 

The whole transaction looked back, as it were, not only 
to the similar miracle, the former extraordinary draught of 
fishes provided for the same persons on the same waters, but 
also to the two instances of supernatural feeding, when the 
hanger of those coming to Christ was satisfied by a few 
loaves and fishes. And did it not look forward also to the 
state of things shortly to take place in the Church ? how that 
in our spiritual toil and hunger He would shew Himself to 
us by glimpses of His blessed Body ; standing on the shore, 
i. e. Heaven, and calling on us from time to time to partake 
of the heavenly food He hath provided for us, until the whole 
Church, the net full of great fishes, a hundred and fifty and 
three, (the perfect number of the elect,) be drawn after Him 
to the land, and the Bridegroom, with them that are ready, 
go in finally to the marriage-feast. 

Perhaps it was not without meaning of this kind that the 
Holy GhostP, describing the intercourse of Christ with His 
disciples during those forty days, selected a word ^ which 
(whatever its derivation) was evidently associated by the 
early Greek Christians with the idea of fellowship in meals. 
Forty days, in the symbolical language of Scripture, would 
represent the whole time of the Church's probation, until 
the day come in which she shall ascend with her Lord : and 
then His partaking of her banquet, or, (according to one 

' Acts i. 4. Chrys. fficum. Theophylact. in loco; 

■J (Tuva>^i^6ixfvoi, "being assembled S. Chr. in S. Joan. Horn. 87, Ed. 

together with them ;" marg. " eating Sav. ii. 925 ; Theodorot, Eranistcs, 

together;" Vulg. " convescens ;" cf. S. Dial. ii. t. iv. 119. 

54 Significance of the Apostles' Miracles. 

CtfAP. II. interpretation), " eating salt with her," would denote His 
presence at the celebration of the great sacrificial feast of 
the new covenant, which He, in His unspeakable condescen- 
sion, accounts Himself partaker of with us : as when He 
says, " I will not any more eat thereof until it be fulfilled 
in the kingdom of God"";" "I will drink no more of the 
fruit of the vine until that day that I drink it new in the 
kingdom of God ^" For His " meat is to do" His " Father's 
will, and to finish His work ' ;" and where on earth is the 
Father's will and work more perfectly found than in holy 
and devout Communion ? There, if any where on this side 
heaven, is the " very image of " those '' good things to 
come," which the gracious Lord encourages us to look on 
to in those words of unutterable condescension, "Blessed 
are those servants, whom the Lord when He cometh shall 
find watching : verily I say unto you, that He shall gird 
Himself, and make them to sit down to meat, and will come 
forth and serve them ^." 

§ 34. Then came the day of the Lord's Ascension, when 
His natural but now glorified Body was to go up to His 
Father's right hand, there to abide, in its visible form and 
substance, until the times of restitution of all things. As 
they saw His Body in the act of departing, " they wor- 
shipped ^ ;" He left them prostrate, or on their knees. Very 
strange it would have seemed to them, had they been told 
that His sacred Body was the less to be worshipped because 
it is now glorified, and must wear a veil over it to be en- 
dured by mortal sight. And when the Holy Comforter had 
come down upon them, and they were admitted fully into 
the kingdom of heaven ; besides their knowledge, now made 
perfect, of all doctrine connected with the Ascension, they 
would find, in the visible prerogatives with which both them- 
selves and others through them were endowed, fresh reasons 
every hour for magnifying the holy Humanity of Christ, di- 
viuely ordained to be all in all to them. For by their com- 
munion with Him through His Spirit, as His chosen and 
select witnesses, chief members of His mystical Body, the 

' S.Luke xxii. 16. ' S. Mark .\iv. 25. ' S.John iv. 34. 

" S. Luke xii. 37. ^ S. Luke xxiv. 32. 

How Christ's Body was glorified in them. 55 

works that He had done they were enabled to do also ; and Chap. II. 
for the more confirmation of this union, they were autho- 
rized to use the very words and gestures which their Lord 
had commonly employed in His miracles of healing. This 
began with the very beginning of the Churchy on the Day of 
Pentecost ; but the first instance particularly recorded is the 
healiug of the lame man by S. Peter, in which there is the 
same combination of the divine Touch and the divine Word 
as in the majority of our Lord's own miracles, and also in 
the outward and visible parts of His Sacraments : the Touch, 
in that the Apostle took the patient " by the right hand and 
lifted him up ;" the Word, in his saying, " In the Name of 
Jesus Christ of Nazareth, rise up and walk ^." So we read 
afterwards, that " by the hands of the Apostles were many 
signs and wonders wrought among the people ^j^' that Ana- 
nias laid his hands upon Saul, and he recovered his sight; 
that S. Peter gave Tabitha his hand to complete her recovery 
after he had wakened her from death, besides saying, " Ta- 
bitha, arise ;" that S. Paul, upon the sudden death of Eu- 
tychus, went down, and fell on him, and embraced him, 
saying, " Trouble not yourselves, for his life is in him ;" re- 
calling the remembrance of what Elijah and Elisha had 
done, and intimating to thoughtful persons the typical sig- 
nificance of their history, (and that miracle, we may observe, 
took place during a celebration of the holy Eucharist) : 
lastly, in Melita he cured a fever by prayer and laying on 
of hands. 

Moreover, from the members, as from the Head, of the 
Church, it was noticed that the healiug virtue did, as it 
were, overflow, communicating itself to their garments, and 
those even apart from their persons. From Paul's body 
*' were brought unto the sick handkerchiefs or aprons, and 
the diseases departed from them, and the evil spirits went 
out of them." And in Acts v., still more remarkably, " they 
brought forth the sick into the streets, and laid them on 
beds and couches, that at the least the shadow of Peter 
passing by might overshadow some of them." The excep- 
tions also to the rule of healing by touch appear to be of the 

» Acts V. 12. y Acts iii. 6. 

56 Direct Argument for Eacharistical Adoration. 

Chap, ii. same kind as those which have been noted in the Gospel 
history : they are, the casting out devils ; the infliction of 
punishments, as in the case of Ananias and Sapphira, and of 
Elymas; special faith, affirmed in the case of the cripple at 
Lystra, and implied in that of /Eneas ; and all in that one 
only Name, whereby it might be known without question 
that Christ is the only Healer, as He is known to be the 
only Baptizer and the only Consecrator. Who can doubt that 
the effect of all this was still to deepen men's reverence and 
gratitude towards the awful and blessed Body which they 
knew to be the fountain of it all ? which Body, be it noticed, 
was every day presented before them in a sacramental way 
in the holy Eucharist ; for in the mother Church of Jeru- 
salem, at least, we know that they " continued daily in 
breaking of bread." 

§ 35. We may perhaps not unfitly close this series of scrip- 
tural facts by noticing that it is the Lamb which is selected, 
rather than the Lion, or any other animal, as that symbol of 
our Lord which may most meetly represent Him in His ce- 
lestial estate, all through the Book of Revelations ; in part, 
doubtless, for the same reason that the Cross is His chosen 
standard among inanimate things, and the Son of Man His 
chosen title : that wherein He abases Himself most, or is 
most evil spoken of, therein He may receive especial glory. 

And the general result of the survey comes, I think un- 
deniably, to as much as this — that every where such encou- 
ragement is given to the worship of our Lord in His human 
nature, made adorable by its union with the Divine, as to 
create a strong probability, at least, that such worship would 
not be forbidden, but rather sanctioned and enjoined, in that 
Sacrament which, rather than any thing else, is the standing 
monument of the Incarnation, and extension of it. 

§ 36. And such, in fact, is the case, as a very few words 
will shew. Worship is a personal thing ; the true, real, pri- 
mary object of worship, in the proper and high sense of the 
word, for all reasonable and understanding creatures, must 
of course be some personal Being, and that Being the Most 
High God. On this point there is no need of any abstract 

It follows immediately from the Real Presence. 57 

discussion ; it is settled for us at once on the very highest Chap. II. 
authority : " Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and 
Him only shalt thou serve." The Person therefore of Jesus 
Christ our Lord, wherever it is, is to be adored — to be ho- 
noured, acknowledged, sought unto, depended on, with all 
possible reverence, with the most entire and single-hearted 
devotion, incommunicable to any finite being — by all crea- 
tures whom He has brought to know Him. This proposition, 
though in the heat of theological warfare it may seem to 
have been denied, and that recently, cannot, I conceive, be 
really and advisedly denied by any one who believes the Di- 
vinity of our Lord. Taking it for granted, I will state it 
once again. The Person of Jesus Christ our Lord, wherever 
it is, is to be adored. And now I will add the next proposi- 
tion in the argument, viz. Christ's Person is in the holy Eu- 
charist by the presence of His Body and Blood therein. 
From which, as will be seen, follows, by direct inference, 
that the Person of Christ is to be adored in that Sacrament, 
as there present in a peculiar manner, by the presence of 
His Body and Blood. 

It is on the second or minor of these three propositions, if 
on any, that opposition is to be expected, and explanation is 
necessary. It raises, evidently, the whole question of that 
which is denominated " the real objective Presence" of Jesus 
Christ in the holy Eucharist. That is to say, whereas the 
Divine nature in Christ is everywhere and always equally 
present, and so everywhere and always alike adorable; but 
to us frail children of men He has condescended at certain 
times and places to give especial tokens of His Presence, 
which it is our duty to recognise, and then especially to 
adore : thus far, I suppose, all allow who in any sense 
believe the Creeds of the Church, that in the holy Eucharist 
we are very particularly bound to take notice of His divine 
Presence, as God the Word, and to worship Him accord- 
ingly. That which some in modern times have denied is, 
that He is then and there present according to His human 
nature, really and substantially present, as truly present as 
He was to any of those with whom He conversed when He 
went in and out among us ; or again, as He is now present 

58 JVo necessary Temptation to adore the Sign. 

Chap. II. in heaven interceding for us. Both of these two last men- 
tioned are modes of His human Presence, acknowledged by 
all who confess Him come in the flesh. But that which 
some affirm, some deny, as part of the Catholic doctrine of 
the Eucharist, is a third and special mode of Presence of the 
holy Humanity of our Lord, denoted and effected by His 
own words — " This is My Body, this is My Blood ;" a Pre- 
sence the manner of which is beyond all thought, much 
more beyond all words of ours, but which those who believe 
it can no more help adoring, than they could have helped it 
had they been present with S.Thomas, to see in His hands 
the print of the nails ; or, again, with so many sick persons 
to touch the hem of His garment, and so to be made whole. 
It is no more natural for them to think, one way or the 
other, of worshipping the Bread and Wine, than it was for 
the woman with the issue of blood to think of worshipping 
the garment which she touched, instead of Him who was 
condescending to wear it and make it an instrument of 
blessing to her. 

If we may reverently say it, (using an illustration which is 
applied by the Church to a subject, if possible, still more 
awful than this,) "as the reasonable soul and flesh is one 
Man,'^ and as " God and Man is one Christ,'' so the conse- 
crated Bread and Wine, and the Body and Blood of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, are one Sacrament. And as we know 
the soul of a man, which we cannot see, to be present by the 
presence of his living body, which we can see, so the presence 
of that Bread and Wine is to us a sure token of the Presence 
of Christ's Body and Blood. We are not more certain of the 
one by our reliance on God's ordinary providence, than we 
are of the otlier by our faith in Christ's own word. And as 
persons of common sense are not apt to confound a man's 
soul with his body, because of the intimate and mysterious 
connection of the two, — (to bring men to that requires either 
extreme subtilty or extreme grossness of understanding) ; — 
nor yet can you easily bring them to doubt whether meat and 
drink serve to keep the two together, whether life can come 
by bread, because they cannot understand how, — so no plain 
and devout reader of Holy Scripture and disciple of the 

The Real Presence^ as taught in S. John vi. 59 

Church would, of his own accord, find a difficulty in ador- Chap. II. 
ing the thing signified, apart from the outward sign or form ; 
or in believing that the one may surely convey the other 
by a spiritual and heavenly process, known to God, but un- 
known to him, and to all on earth. 

§ 37. It is not the object of these papers to reason out at 
large that great, and comfortable, and (I will add) necessary 
truth, known to the faithful under the name of "the Real 
Presence," but rather to point out the inseparable connection 
between it and the practice of adoration. But I must here 
borrow so much from the premisses of that argument as to 
assume that the sixth chapter of S. John really and pri- 
marily relates to the Sacrament of Holy Communion ; ac- 
cording to the well-known interpretation of Hooker, which 
is the interpretation of all antiquity, and lies so obviously on 
the surface of Scripture, that one can hardly conceive a sim- 
ple, unlearned reader giving any other turn to the discourse 
in that chapter, unless he were prepossessed by a theory. 

Allowing, then, that, as Hooker alleges, the Apostles at the 
Last Supper could not but understand the sayings and doings 
of our Lord as the intended fulfilment of His typical miracle 
and prophetic sayings a twelvemonth before, let us calmly 
consider what doctrine about Holy Communion they must 
have taught and believed, from that day forward, or at least 
from the day of His coming upon them Who was to bring all 
Christ's sayings to remembrance. They must have believed 
that, as ordinary food and drink are necessary to ordinary 
temporal life, so His Body and Blood, sacramentally received, 
are necessary to spiritual life ; for " except ye eat the Flesh 
of the Son of Man, and drink His Blood, ye have no life in 
you :" — that as a common meal, with God's blessing upon it, 
has a virtue to keep us alive for a certain time, so this hea- 
venly meal has the like virtue in respect to the life everlast- 
ing; for "whoso cateth My Flesh and drinketh My Blood 
hath eternal life ;" — that it has a certain special quality of 
preparing our bodies for tbe general resurrection ; for " I will 
raise him up at the last day ^ ;" — that ordinary food and drink 
is but the shadow of this, the true Bread from heaven, and 
* Cf. 1 Cor. XV. 45. 

60 Use of the Title '' Son of Man'' in S. John vi. 

Chap. II. the fruit of the true Vine, in the same kind of way that 
Christ is the true Light, and this material light but a figure 
of Him ; heaven the true riches, of which the earthly mam- 
mon is but a coarse and unreal image ; and all other Gospel 
antitypes far more real and substantial than their legal or 
natural types : for which cause, mainly, (as I suppose,) Christ 
is called the Truth, in contradistinction to Mosaical shadows ; 
so that in the Sacrament we eat and drink more really and 
substantially than on any other occasion : — all this they might 
gather from the saying, " For My Flesh is meat indeed, and 
My Blood is drink indeed." 

Again, they would understand that His Flesh and Blood in 
Holy Communion is the special means appointed by Him, 
not for beginning, but for continuing, spiritual life, — the in- 
strument whereby the members adhere to their Head, — as 
well as the remedial token and pledge whereby they know 
that they are very members incorporate in Him, and not yet 
cast oif for their many backslidings; for "He that eateth 
My Flesh, and drinketh My Blood, dwelleth in Me, and I in 
him." Finally, to set the most awful seal to the greatness 
and reality of all this, — to put down for ever the notion that 
He was merely using figures of speech, — the Holy Ghost 
caused them to remember that our Lord had said, " As the 
living Father hath sent Me, and I live by the Father : so he 
that eateth Me, even he shall live by Me ^." 

§ 38. And for a key to the whole mysterious transaction, so 
far as man might comprehend it, He had introduced the 
title. Son of Man, three times in the course of the conversa- 
tion, and apparently just at those points of it where it would 
come in most significantlj'-, supposing His intention to be to 
intimate thereby the office of the Sacrament in extending 
and applying the benefit of His Incarnation. 

First, in leading His hearers to the whole subject. He had 
said, " Labour not for the meat which perisheth, but for that 
meat which endureth unto everlasting life, which the Son of 
Man shall give unto yon : for Him hath God the Father 
sealed ^." Him the Father had " sanctified and sent into the 
world," anointing His holy Manhood with the Holy Ghost 
" S. John vi. 57. i" Ibid. 27. 

Bearing of Chnsfs Ascension on the Eucharist. 61 

and with power without measure, for this especial purpose, Chap. II. 
that He, being the Son of Man, might give us the meat that 
endureth unto everlasting life. 

Secondly ; when in His gracious disclosures, keeping even 
time (so to speak) with the stubborn and insolent answers of 
the Jews, He had arrived at that saying, so offensive to the 
ear and heart of philosophy falsely so called, "The Bread 
that I will give is My Flesh ;" it began, as soon as spoken, 
to be a cause of strife : for in regard of this doctrine espe- 
cially has the saying ever been too truly fulfilled, " I came 
not to send peace on the earth, but a sword."' And accord- 
ingly the Jews, at the very first hearing of it, began to strive 
with one another, saying, " How can this Man give us His 
Flesh to eat •= ?" "Whereupon our Lord, in repeating it, with 
the addition that they must drink His Blood, was careful to 
point out to them that it was the Flesh and Blood of the 
Son of Man : Except ye eat the Flesh of the Son of Man, 
and drink His Blood, ye have no life in you." As Son of 
Man, He had decreed to bestow on them His Flesh and 
Blood, that it might be within them, to be the very life of 
their souls. 

Once more, when the trial and agony caused by the 
" hard saying '^" seemed at the keenest, in His prophetic 
mercy and pity He warned them of an event which would 
make it harder still : "What and if ye shall see the Son of 
Man ascend up where He was before ?" He accompanied the 
warning with a significant repetition of the title. Son of Man ; 
which, when the time was come. His disciples would under- 
stand to imply that His going up to heaven bodily, in His 
human nature, was indeed a most essential link in the chain 
of wonders which began with His Incarnation. His work as 
Son of Man would be very incomplete without it ; He could 
neither sit as a King on His Father's right hand in heaven, 
" until His enemies be made His footstool," nor stand before 
Him, either there or in earth, as " a Priest for ever after the 
order of Melchisedec." Since the commemorative Sacrifice 
in heaven was necessary for the eflScacy of the Eucharist of- 
fered on earth, — which, indeed, is only efficacious by being 
joined to the oblation above, — the Communion, however 
■= S. John vL 52, 53. <» Ibid. 60. 

62 The Holy Spirit's Work in the Eucharist. 

Chap. II. blessed a thing, cannot be understood as having done all its 
work before the glorious Ascension of our Lord. Mary must 
not touch Christ, because He hath " not yet ascended to His 
Father/' to send down, as the first-fruits of His priestly office 
in heaven, the Holy Spirit, by Whose regenerating power 
mortals might be united to Him, and made worthy to touch 
Him spiritually. Such is S. Cyril's exposition of that mys- 
terious saying, " Touch Me not, for I am not yet ascended to 
My Father^." And if any one hesitate to accept it, as incon- 
sistent with our Lord's offering His Body, as He did so often, 
to the touch of His disciples during those forty days, he may 
consider that such permission was granted, by way of mira- 
culous evidence, to such as were yet imperfect in the faith of 
the Resurrection; whereas the blessed Magdalene seems to 
have had no doubt, but only wanted to kiss His feet, as be- 
fore His death, in loving adoration. Her touch would repre- 
sent the ordinary approach of believers to Christ's Body in 
the holy Eucharist, and was therefore to be deferred until 
she had been purified by the Holy Ghost. 

To return for a moment to His own words in the sixth 
chapter : " What and if ye shall see the Son of Man ascend 
up where He was before ?" Understood in this connection, 
they do in a wonderful manner intimate the three great 
mysterious Unities comprised in the idea of Christian re- 
demption : first, the Unity of the Father and the Son, im- 
plied in " where He was before ;" next, the Unity of God 
and Man in the Person of Christ, implied in the title. Son 
of Man ; thirdly, the Union and Communion between Christ 
and His saints, in that partaking of His Body and Blood is 
here connected with His Ascension. And in the next verse 
He turns our thoughts towards that other Divine Person, 
Who, as Holy Scripture informs us, is in some heavenly way 
the bond and principle of each of these divine unities. " It 
is the Spirit that quickencth." The Holy Giiost, the Lord 
and Giver of Life, of Whom the Church says ^ that " in His 
unity" the Son liveth and reigneth with the Father; and 
Whom our Lord, speaking to the Father, seems in one place 
to entitle, '' The Love wherewith Thou hast loved Me e ;" by 

' In S. Joan. xx. 17. t. vi. 1084—1086. Ed. Aubert. 
' Collect for Whitsunday. « S. John xvii. nit. 

Christ's Person is the Bread of Life. 63 

Whose power, overshadowing the blessed Virgin, the God- Chap. II. 
liead and Manhood were united for ever in Clirist : — He it 
is that quickeneth the souls and bodies of men dead in tres- 
passes and sins : He also (so our Lord seems to speak) shall 
descend upon the earthly creatures which I by My priests 
shall blessj and cause them to be the Flesh and Blood of the 
Son of Man, life eternal to those who go on worthily receiv- 
ing them. " The flesh profiteth nothing :" not even the Body 
of the Lord Jesus Christ, could you conceive it separated 
from His divine Person and Spirit, — much less the Bread and 
Wine used as a charm, — could ever do your souls any good : 
any such superstition or witchcraft could only come of this 
earth, or w^orse ; but " the words that / speak unto you, 
they are spirit and they are life." 

But whatever turn may be given to this verse in particular, 
certainly there is nothing in the above-mentioned way of 
stating the general drift of that chapter of S. John, but what 
the words will very well admit of: nothing unwarranted 
by the testimony of the ancient Church : and the mere 
statement of it shews sufficiently what an exact analogy it 
bears to the Scriptural accounts of the other portions of the 
divine process of salvation, — how naturally it finds its place 
among them. 

§ 39. Now to apply all this to the question of adoration : 
is the Person of Christy God and Man, present in the holy 
Eucharist by this transcendental Presence of His Body and 
Blood ? The affirmative seems distinctly proved by His own 
words in the same discourse ; in that He more than once 
interchanges the first personal pronoun, I, Me, &c., with the 
phrases, "This bread. My flesh," &c. I will not dwell on 
the 32nd and 33rd verses •*, which in our English translation 
would seem to exemplify this ; for it may be that the sen- 
tence which is rendered, " The Bread of God is He which 
cometh down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world," 
should rather be rendered " that which cometh down from 
heaven ;" although the word " giveth" strongly suggests the 
idea of a person acting, and is distinctly so employed 

'' 'O riax'jjp /xoi» Zl^<a(Tiv ii/uy rhu Aprou lipros rov Oeov eVrJi' 6 Karafialfcuv 4k 
^K Tov ovpavov rhv a\r]0iv6t'. 'O yap tov ovpavov, Koi ^vhv SiSoij r^ kJctju^. 

64 The Bread of Life, being Christ Himself is adorable. 

Chap. II. throughout the New Testament, with two exceptions only, 
and those of a poetical cast: "the moon shall not give her 
light ;" and, " the heavens gave rain '." 

But be this as it may, two verses further on our Lord dis- 
tinctly identifies the Bread of Life with His own Person : 
"I am the Bread of LifeJ." And so the Jews understood 
Him, for they murmured at His saying, " I am the Bread 
which came down from heaven ;" and He, instead of correct- 
ing, confirms their thought, re-asserting more unequivocally, 
more at large, and in a more startling form, the truth at which 
they had taken offence, and leaving it with them, and with 
all His hearers, to be an occasion of falling to the one sort, 
a wholesome exercise of faith to the other. " I am that Bread 
of Life," He repeats ; " I, in My Person, Jesus Christ, God 
and Man." "Of Life:" in that while "your fathers did 
eat manna," which was called " Bread from heaven," " and 
are dead, this is the Bread that cometh down from Heaven, 
that a man may eat thereof and not die." Then, as if to 
preclude the notion that the bread He was speaking of was 
any mere gift of His, anything short of participation of His 
very Self, He proceeds to qualify that Bread as living, and as 
having come down from heaven : "I am the living Bread which 
came down from heaven;" not life-giving only, but living; 
not here Kara^alvwv, but Kara^ds, — i. e. not (as in the pre- 
ceding verse) coming, as it were, mystically down, from time 
to time, on each sacramental occasion, but having once for all 
come down by the wonderful Incarnation ; on which descent 
plainly depends the word of promise immediately following : 
" If any man eat of this Bread, he shall live for ever." And to 
complete the statement, and bring the Sacrament which He 
was to institute into closest connection with His own Incar- 
nate Person, He subjoins, " And the Bread, moreover, (/cat 6 
apros he) which I will give is My Flesh, which I will give for 
the life of the world," (The he, which in this phrase indicates 
the insertion of a new circumstance in the statement, is over- 
looked in our version.) His Flesh, then, in this argument is 
plainly Himself, and the sacramental Presence, oblation, and 
participation of the one are respectively those of the other. 

» S. Matt. xxiv. 29 ; S, James v. 18, J Ibid. 35 : cf. 41, 48—51. 

S. Ambrose on the Personal Presence. 65 

The same is again iraplied (may we not say, clearly as- Chap. II. 
serted?) in the concluding portion of the dialogue. " AVhoso 
(v. 54) eateth My Flesh and drinketh My Blood, hath eternal 
life ; and I will raise him up at the last day ;" is repeated 
(v. 57) in this form : " He that eateth Me, even he shall live 
hy Me." The " Me" in this sentence is clearly equivalent 
to " My Flesh" in the former one. Therefore such as eat 
His Flesh and drink His Blood worthily in Holy Communion 
are indeed partakers of the Son of God by a true super- 
natural union, and derive from Him eternal life ; as really 
as He is partaker of the Father, by that ineffable, incom- 
municable Sonship, and being for ever God of God, Light 
of Light, very God of very God, — the Second Person, not 
the First, — derives from Him, who is the First, life and being, 
and all that He hath ; and is God, not by adoption, but by 
eternal generation. What man or Angel durst have spoken 
such a word ? but now it is put into our mouths by the 
Creator of men and Angels, and we dare not refrain from 
speaking it. 

Therefore, again, (how can we help the conclusion ? and 
why should we shrink from it ?) where His Flesh and Blood 
are, there is He by a peculiar and personal Presence, in His 
holy Humanity; and being there, — being, as First-begotten, 
so brought continually into " the habitable parts of His 
earth," according to the " delight" which He has in being 
" with the sons of men,"-^He must needs be adorable, both 
by the holy Angels and by the children of men themselves, 
whom He comes to quicken and to bless for ever. 

§ 40. The points on which this argument turns are ex- 
pressed in few and well-known words by S. Ambrose, near 
the end of his Tract on the Mysteries, not as his own teach- 
ing, but as the teaching of the Church K First, of the real 
and substantial Presence after Consecration thus he writes : 

"The Lord Jesus Himself cries out. This is Mij Body. 
Before benediction by the heavenly words, it is named by 
the name of another kind of thing ; after consecration it is 
signified to be a Body. He Himself calls it * His own 
Blood.' Before consecration it is called something else; 

•• § 54—58. 

66 How the Eucharist is a Sacrifice. 

Chap. IT. after consecration, its style and title is Blood. And thou 
sayest, Amen ; that is, it is true. What the mouth speak- 
eth, let the mind inwardly confess; M'hat the discourse 
utters, the same let the heart feel." 

Next, as to the Presence being personal, by reason of the 
Presence of His Body : — " The Church, beholding so great 
grace, exhorts her children, exhorts all around her, to run 
together to her Sacraments, saying, Eat, ye who are nearest 
unto Me, and drink, and be inebriated, my brethren'^. 
What we eat, what we drink, the Holy Spirit in another 
place hath explained to thee by the prophet, saying, taste 
and see that the Lord is sweet : blessed is the man who trust- 
eth in Rim^." Here the Psalmist is interpreted as signi- 
fying that what we taste is the Lord Himself: for S.Am- 
brose proceeds, " In that Sacrament is Christ, because it is 
the Body of Christ." And then he warns us, — in words 
corresponding to our Lord's cautionary saying, — " It is the 
Spirit that quickeneth ; the Flesh profiteth nothing ;" that 
for this very reason, " because it is the Body of Christ," it 
is "not bodily food, but spiritual. Wherefore also the 
Apostle saith of that which is a type of it, that our Fathers 
did eat spiritual meat, and drink spiritual drink. For the 
Body of God is a spiritual Body ; the Body of Christ is the 
Body of a Divine Spirit : for Christ is a Spirit .... I may 
add, that it is our heart which this meat * strengthens,' and 
this drink *maketh glad the heart of man;' as the prophet 
points out" in the 104th Psalm. 

What was the opinion of S. Ambrose, or rather what his 
testimony is to the belief and practice of the whole Church 
in his time, touching the adoration of Christ sacramentally 
present, will appear by-and-by. 

§ 41. But the Scriptural argument for it is yet very far 
from being exhausted. The Word of God presents to us 
the Sacrament of the Eucharist under another, a sacrificial, 
aspect : which must be considered, if the truth is adequately 
to be told concerning either the Keal Presence, or the 
adoration claimed for it. The Eucharist, as the Fathers 

' Cantic. v. 1. "" Ps. xxxiv. 9. 

How proved such by the Words of Institution. 67 

speak, is the unbloody Sacrifice of the New Testament ; un- Chap. IT. 
bloody, though it be in part an offering of blood : avat- 
fiaKTos, not dvai/iios. No blood shed in it, but the living 
Blood of Christ with His living Body offered up to the 
Father, for a memorial of the real blood-shedding, the awful 
and painful Sacrifice once for all offered on the Cross. 

This memorial Christ offers in heaven, night and day, to 
God the Father : His glorified Body, with all its wounds, His 
blood which He poured out on the cross, but on His resur- 
rection took again to Himself, and with it ascended into 
heaven. With that Body and Blood He appears continually 
before the throne, by it making intercession for us; by it 
reminding God the Father of His one oblation of Himself 
once offered on the cross : as S. John writes, " We have an 
Advocate," one to plead for us, "with the Father, and He 
is the Propitiation for our sins." Thus He is our Aaron 
first, and then our Melchisedec; the virtue of His perpetual 
advocacy depending on His former propitiation. Both ways 
He is " a Priest for ever." 

§ 4.2. But to enter on a regular exposition of this great 
evangelical truth would involve a detailed commentary on 
large portions of Holy Scripture, and the whole system of 
ancient sacrifices would have to be thoroughly and minutely 
analysed. For the present undertaking it will suffice if we 
can shew, 

First, that the doctrine of the Eucharistical Sacrifice is in- 
volved in the very words of institution, and is of course in- 
separable from the true meaning and right use of the Sacra- 
ment. In which argument it will incidentally appear that 
the English Liturgy in particular is full of the same doctrine. 

Secondly, that there are large portions of the New Testa- 
ment which cannot be explained without assuming it. 

And as we go along, we shall see how evidently the fact 
of Christ's Eucharistical Priesthood implies the duty of con- 
stantly adoring Him in the Eucharist. 

§ 43. First, then, of the Words of Institution, and the turn 
given to them in our Communion Office. 

The places, it is true, are not many, but they are deeply 
significant. The key-words in them (so to speak) are such 


68 In lohat sense the Gospel has no Sacrifice. 

Chap. II. as remembrance, memory, memorial, all wliicli refer us of 
course to one of the words of institution : " Do this in re- 
membrance of Me;" els rrjv e/Mrjv dvd/ivrjaiv. The word 
dvd^vqa-Ls is a sacrificial word, as may be seen in Leviticus ii., 
and elsewhere, as well as the kindred word /jbvrj/jboa-vvov ; and 
wlien so applied, means always "something offered to Al- 
mighty God, to remind Him" of the worshipper himself, or 
of some other person or object in wbom the worshipper takes 
an interest ; or of His own loving-kindness, shewn by mercies 
past or gracious promises for the future. 

Such memorial offerings in sacrifice are like the memorial 
words in prayer : e. g., " Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Is- 
rael, Thy servants";" " Remember me, O my God, for good°." 
Or like that which is the conclusion of almost all the col- 
lects which we address to God the Father, — " through Jesus 
Christ our Lord." That short form is in words what the Chris- 
tian memorial Sacrifice is in act and deed ; pleading with the 
Father by Christ crucified ; presenting to Him the Body and 
Blood of His Incarnate Son, with all His wounds, and all 
His merits and mercies, that in Him and by Him we may 
be accepted; that the remedy provided for all may be ap- 
plied to, and taken by, each one in particular. This is the 
proper drift of the word remembrance in our Lord's institu- 
tion of the Sacrament. " Do this ;" He seems to say, " Bless, 
break, distribute, receive, this Bread ; bless, distribute, drink 
of this Cup ; say over the two respectively, ' This is INIy 
Body, this is My Blood ;' in order to that memorial sacri- 
fice which properly belongs to Me ; tlie memorial which My 
servants are continually to make of Me, among one another, 
and before My Father." Not, of course, as though He could 
forget, or needed, like the heathen idols, to have His at- 
tention recalled to His worshippers, (as Elijah said of Baal, 
" He sleepeth, and must be awaked ;") — far be it from any 
Christian to charge his brethren with such an unworthy 
superstitious notion ; but as it is with the omniscient God in 
the matter of prayer, so in this matter of sacrifice. He 
knoweth what we have need of before we ask, yet He willeth 

o Exotl. xxxii. 13 ; Isa. Ixiv. 9. 

° Nchem. xiii. 31 j Ps. Ixxiv. 2, 18; Ps. Ixxix. 8. 

The Eucharist not a material Sacrifice. 69 

us to ask : so He might without any offering of ours apply Chap. ir. 
to us the benefits of our Lord's Sacrifice, but it hath pleased 
Him to ordain this way of memorial sacrifice, — a most blessed 
way for us, in that we are hereby permitted to join in that 
very same memorial of our dear Lord's Death and Passion, 
which He is now and always making of it within the true 
holy of holies, and before the true mercy-seat. 

§ 44. Theologians, indeed, have not seldom said that the 
Christian dispensation has no standing sacrifice, properly so 
called : thus Hooker, " The Fathers of the Church of Christ 
call usually the ministry of the Gospel priesthood, in regard 
of that which the Gospel hath proportionable to ancient sa- 
crifices, namely, the Communion of the blessed Body and 
Blood of Christ, although it have properly now no sacrifice p." 
This passage undoubtedly does in words contradict the say- 
ing that the Eucharist is the " Christian Sacrifice ;" but on 
second thoughts it may, perhaps, be found substantially to 
assert the doctrine contained in that saying. ''The Gos- 
pel," he says, " hath properly now no sacrifice ;" i. e., no 
such sacrifice as had been mentioned just before, under the 
title of "ancient sacrifices;" no material offering solemnly 
ordained for the known ends of sacrifices. This we all 
grant ; it is the very same statement which the same Fa- 
thers were in the habit of making, when they were explain- 
ing the principles of Christianity to the heathen, so far as 
their rule permitted. Take, for instance, the words which 
Prudentius puts into the mouth of the martyr E.omanus'' : — 

"Cognostis Ipsum; nunc colendi agnoscite 
Ritum modumque : quale sit templi genus. 
Quae dedicari sanxerit donaria. 
Qua! Yota poscat, quos sacerdotcs velit. 
Quod mandct illic nectar immolarier. 

-^dem sibi Ipse mente in hominis condidit ; . . . . 
Illic sacerdos stat sacrato in limine, 
Foresque primas viigo custodit fides. . . . 
Poscit litari victimas Christo ct Patri, . . 
Frontis pudorcm, cordis innoccntiam, 

' Eccl. Pol., V. 78. "• ncpl arffpavM, x. 341. 

70 Hooker's Doctrine substantially Patristical ; 

CiiAP. IT. Dei timorem, regulam scientite, 

Pacis quietem, castitatem, corporis 

Ex his amoenus hostiis surgit vapor, . , . 
Et prosperatum dulco delectat Deum." 

Did Prudentius and others by these and the like sayings 
imply that sacrifice is no part of the Christian ministry in 
any sense ? surely not. 

Prudentius flourished in the latter half of the fifth century ; 
a time in which there can be no doubt of the prevalence of 
the sacrificial view of the Eucharist over the whole Church. 
All will allow that the language to which Hooker refers as 
usual in the Fathers, was by that time at least universally 
employed, both in liturgies, and in homilies, and other re- 
ligious compositions. One short sentence in an epistle of 
S. Augustin and other African Fathers to Pope S. Inno- 
cent I. may be taken as a key to their doctrine : " Mel- 
chisedec by bringing forth the sacramental sign of the 
Lord's Table, was instructed how to prefigure His eter- 
nal Priesthood"".'^ How can this be reconciled with re- 
pudiation of altars and sacrifices in the statements before- 
mentioned? In this way, if I mistake not, — that the true 
oblation in the Christian Sacrifice is in no sense earthly or 
material. It is altogether spiritual : the chief of those spi- 
ritual sacrifices in the offering whereof consists the common 
priesthood of us all. The Eucharist comprehends them all in 
one, and has besides, peculiar to itself, that which alone causes 
any of them to be acceptable. For the true oblation in the 
Eucharist is not the Bread and Wine, — that is only as the 
vessel which contains or the garment which veils it; — but 
that which our Lord by the hands of the priest offers to His 
Father in the holy Eucharist, is His own Body and Blood, 
the very same which He ofi'ers and presents to Him, — with 
which, as S.Paul says^ He appears before Him now, night and 
day continually — in heaven, in commemoration of His having 
offered it once for all in His Passion and Death on the Cross. 
It is the one great reality, summing up in itself all the 
memorial sacrifices of old. In the Christian scheme, it is 
" proportionable" to them ; and of course it stands in the 

' Ap. S. Aug., YjY>. cxxxvii. 12. ' Hcb. ix. 24. 

both as to the Presence, and as to the Sacrifice. 71 

same rank and relation to them, as the other antitypes in Chap. ir. 
the Gospel to their several types and shadows in the law. 

The memorial therefore made of Christ before the Father 
in Holy Communion, is as much more real, more glorious, 
more blessed, than all the memorial sacrifices of old ; — than 
the 3'^early paschal lamb, for instance; — as the one atoning 
Sacrifice on the Cross surpassed the lamb slain at the first 
Passover; as the descent of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost 
surpassed the fire on the burnt-offering ; as Christ is more 
glorious than Aaron or Melchisedec ; heaven, with the tree 
of life and the waters of life, more blessed than the land 
flowing with milk and honey ; the new Jerusalem more true 
and real than the old. He who thinks most highly, and 
therefore least inadequately, of that holy and divine Sacra- 
ment, cannot well say, or conceive, any thing of it higher 
than this, — that it is, in the strict sense of the word, " that 
which the Gospel hath proportionable to ancient sacri- 

Therefore let no person apprehend that in teaching and 
magnifying the Eucharistic Sacrifice he is really contradicting 
this great authority ; any more than, to name a kindred point, 
he need think himself departing in pinnciple from Hooker's 
mind by maintaining the Real objective Presence after con- 
secration. For it is very plain that Hooker's scruple arose 
not from any dread of so-called superstition, as though 
too much were being attributed to sacraments, but from 
jealousy in behalf of the doctrine of our Lord's true and 
abiding Humanity. That doctrine being duly guarded, (as 
no doubt it is by the Fathers' language thoroughly consi- 
dered,) Hooker evidently would have felt himself free to 
receive that language in its literal meaning, as acknowledg- 
ing a Presence most real and substantial, but not corporeal 
or natural ; — not such as would be recognised by the bodily 
sense, though the veil were ever so much taken away. 
The very passage which Hooker, in stating his difficulty, 
alleges from S. Augustine, may seem to suggest the so- 
lution of it : " The Man Christ Jesus is now in that very 
place from whence He shall come in the same form and 

' The italics are Hooker's owu, in his first edition. 

72 Art. XXXI. relates to atoning Sacrifices. 

CiiAr. 11. substance of flesh which He carried thither, and from which 
He hath not taken nature, but given thereunto immortality. 
According to this form He spreadeth not out Himself into 
all places." Not in His human form, nor simply in all 
places " ; yet this hinders not, but that His Person may be 
wherever in His sacramental word He declares, " This is 
My Body," by a Presence of His glorified Humanity, literally 
true, though to us undefinable. 

§ 45. But if Hooker ought not really to be set down as a 
denier of commemorative sacrifice in the Eucharist, much 
less can our thirty-first Article be so interpreted with any 
shadow of reason. That Article obviously deals with those 
sacrifices only for which atoning virtue is claimed, and 
power to make satisfaction for sin, besides and apart from 
the offering of Christ on the cross. It does not touch the 
Eucharistic Sacrifice, considered as one with that presenta- 
tion of His crucified and risen Body to the Father, which 
the Apostle to the Hebrews describes as taking place con- 
tinually in heaven, for the application of the great remedy to 
the cleansing of each man's soul and conscience in parti- 
cular. As in the typical atonement made yearly for God's 
ancient people, it was no disparagement to the virtue of the 
sin-offering, that its blood had to be brought by the high- 
priest .within the veil, and applied by sprinkling to the holy 
places, the priests, and the people ; so it is in this case. 
To say that the sacrificial view of the Eucharist interferes 
with the sufficiency of the sacrifice of the death of Christ, 
would in effect be saying that Melchisedec could not be a 
priest because Aaron was; nay, more, — that our Lord could 
not be our Intercessor in heaven, because He had become 
our Redeemer here by His death. 

Now, if the holy Eucharist as a sacrifice be all one with 
the memorial made by our High-Priest Himself in the 
very sanctuary of heaven, where He is both Priest, after the 
order of Melchisedec, and Offering, by the perpetual pre- 
sentation of His Body and Blood ; then, as the blessed in- 
habitants of heaven cannot but be thought of as adoring 
Ilim in both His aspects, of Priest and Sacrifice, — so how 

" Etcl. Pol., Iv. 6. 

Our Eucharists a Continuation of our Lord*s. 73 

should His holy Church throughout all the world not adore Chap. IT. 
Him in like manner, as often as she " goeth up to the reve- 
rend Communion" to offer up spiritual sacrifices, and " to 
be satisfied with spiritual meats''?'^ For there He is in His 
holy and perfect Manhood, virtually present, as our Priest, 
with him that ministereth, being one of those to •whom He 
said, "Lo! I am with you alway, even unto the end of the 
world ;" and really present, as our Sacrifice, according to 
that other word, " This is My Body, and this is My Blood/' — 
" Do this in remembrance of Me." 

§ 46. And so the Catechism of the Church of England 
takes it ; requiring for the validity of the outward sign, that 
it be not only " bread and wine," but that " Bread and Wine 
which the Lord hath commanded to be received;" i.e. over 
which Christ Himself hath spoken the words of institution. 
If any one doubt this construction, he may consider, first, 
that it would be mere tautology, little to be expected in such 
a document, to repeat here what had been plainly and suffi- 
ciently set down in the general definition of a sacrament — 
that it must be "ordained by Christ Himself;" next, that 
our view is no more than is required to make the description 
of this Sacrament equivalent to that which had been given of 
the other. For, (this section of the Catechism being plainly 
intended to be framed in exact logical order,) since in the 
account of holy Baptism, the outward and visible sign or 
form had been definedrboth by the Element and the Word ; 
— the element, water; the word, "In the Name of the Father, 
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost ;" — it was to be expected 
that there would be a like specification in the case of the 
holy Eucharist also. But nothing of the sort appears, un- 
less we accept the above-mentioned account of the clause, 
"which the Lord hath cammanded to be received." The 
outward part of the great Sacrament is on that hypothesis 
defined by its Element only, and no Word at .nil assigned to 
it. Whereas on our construction the well-known saying of 
S. Augustine is precisely kept in view : " Accedit verbura ad 
elementum, et fit Sacraraentura." 

Again, this mode of interpretation critically accords with 

* lloui. of the SatiaUKiil, 1st jiart. 

74> Teaching of our Catechism on that point. 

Chap. II. a Certain important distinction observed all along by tlie 
Church in dealing with these two blessed mysteries. The 
Word or verbal part of the form in Baptism is minutely and 
unchangeably laid down, but nothing is said or implied 
of any special qualification in the person speaking it. In 
the Eucharist, not only are the words of institution (as 
we take it) peremptorily enacted, but it is also enacted 
that they must be spoken by Christ Himself, saying in each 
case over the particular element, "Take, eat, This is My 
Body which is given for you ;" and " Drink ye all of this, for 
this is My Blood." Thus the Catechism assumes that it is 
no true Supper of the Lord, unless the person celebrating be 
one expressly authorized to speak the words in our Lord's 
own Name ; as much so as those were with whom He cele- 
brated His first Eucharist. This, I say, harmonizes well with 
the fact notorious in Church history, that all Christians, in 
case of necessity, are empowered to administer holy Baptism, 
but none may "make the Body of Christ," except those 
specially commissioned by the Apostles. 

Would it be going too far to say that our Church in this 
sentence simply accepts the idea of one only Consecrator, 
analogous to that so plainly preached by S. John Baptist, 
and expounded by S. Augustine, of one only Baptizer ? 
Whereupon it would seem to follow, that in reality there is 
but one Eucharist ; that our celebrations, how innumerable 
soever, and however widely separated in time and place, are 
not so many commemorations of that first offering in the 
upper room, but an actual continuation of it ; a continuation 
of it on earth, the very image (as S. Paul and S. Ambrose 
speak) of that other and heavenly continuation of it, which 
began on our Lord^s Ascension, and will go on to the end of 
the world. 

This is the theory of the Church's daily Sacrifice. It would 
be literally continual, if all lands were Christian, and if Holy 
Communion were solemnized at the same hour in every Chris- 
tian land. Not as if, according to the language of Roman 
writers, the expiatory Sacrifice on the Cross were repeated or 
continued on our altars. The Epistle to the Hebrews, and 
the ancient Church commenting on it, as expressly negative 

The Catechism, teaching Real Presence, implies Adoration. 75 

any sucli statement, as they affirm the continuance of the Chap. II. 
pleading commemorative Sacrifice : " The continual remem- 
brance of the Sacrifice of the Death of Christ, and of the 
benefits which we receive thereby." 

The Man Christ Jesus, according to the Catechism, is thus 
virtually present, as the true Consecrator, in our Eucharist. 
Still more distinctly are we there instructed concerning the 
real Presence of His Body and Blood in that Sacrament, — to 
be first our Oblation, and then our spiritual Food. Com- 
bining the several statements, they amount to this : the 
Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, in that it is a sacrament, 
has always in it two parts, whereof the inward and spiritual 
part is the Body and Blood of Christ ; — and it has two pur- 
poses : 1. to be a continual remembrance, or memory, or 
memorial before God as well as man, not a repetition or 
continuance, of the Sacrifice of the Death of Christ ; 2. to be 
verily and indeed taken and received by the faithful for the 
strengthening and refreshing of our souls, as our bodies are 
strengthened and refreshed b}'' bread and wine. I cannot 
understand these statements to imply less than a real and 
substantial Presence of Christ by the Presence of His 
Body and Blood; nor can I imagine any one believing 
Him so present, and not acknowledging the same by spe- 
cial adoration. 

The rather, since, (if I may revert here to one of the prin- 
ciples laid down in the beginning of this essay,) His Pre- 
sence here is associated not only wdth infinite blessings, but 
also with unspeakable condescension. He comes down in a 
manner to offer Himself anew for each one of us in particular, 
receiving Him worthily; and that under the poor and ordi- 
nary veil, or form, which we all know, thereby subjecting 
Himself (I speak as a man) to many indignities. He comes 
to be feasted on, not sacrificed only ; as a Peace-ofiering to 
apply His own merits, not as a proper Sin-offering, as when 
on the Cross He merited all for us ; and therefore He yields 
His Body and Blood, i.e. Himself, to be partaken of by us 
sinners. As partakers of the altar, we are permitted to eat 
of the sacrifice; which sacrifice in this case is that Man 
who is the Most High God. That, therefore, of which we 

7Q Doctrinal Force of the "Amen" after Consecration: 

Chap. II. cat, the same we are most humbly to worship; not the less, 
but the more, because in so giving Himself to us lie is 
stooping so very low for our sakes. The very rule of giving 
thanks before meals, if we rightly consider it, changes itself 
into a law of adoration when it is applied to this Meal. If 
"every creature of God is good, and to be received with 
thanksgiving,'^ how much more that Flesh and Blood Avhich 
the Son hns taken into His own Divine Person, and by vi^hich 
He gives Himself to us. If we really believe that that which 
He declares to be His own Flesh and Blood is Jesus Christ 
giving Plimself to us under the form of Bread and Wine, 
how can we help thanking, and therefore adoring, (for to 
thank God is to adore,) the unspeakable Gift, as well as 
the most bountiful Giver? seeing that in this case both are 
one. "We may reverently apply here the apostolic words, 
"For if I by grace be a partaker, why am I evil spoken 
of for that for which I give thanks^ ?" 

§ 47. Once more. It is the unquestionable doctrine both 
of the Old and New Testament, that, without prejudice to the 
special official priesthood of the sons of Aaron in the one 
dispensation, and the successors of the Apostles in the other, 
all the people of God, with the true Melchisedec at their head, 
are " a kingdom of priests, a royal priesthood,^' and every 
one is a " king and priest unto the Father, to offer up spiri- 
tual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ." None 
may doubt that the chief of those spiritual sacrifices is that 
which causes all the rest to be acceptable, — Christ Himself 
offered up to the Father by the offering of His Body and 
Blood in Holy Communion. Accordingly, the Christian peo- 
ple have been instructed from the beginning to take their 
part in that offering, by the solemn Amen especially, where- 
with they have always responded to the Prayer of Consecra- 
tion. There is hardly any point of our ritual which can be 
traced more certainly than this to the very apostolic times. 
Every one will remember S. Paul's saying, " When thou 
shalt bless with the spirit, how shall he that occupieth the 
room of the unlearned say Amen at thy giving of thanks, 
seeing he understandeth not A\hat thou sayest^?" — words 

y 1 Cor. X. 30. ' 1 Cor. xiv. 16. 

Patristical Authorities for it. 77 

which, in a singular way, bear witness both to the share Chap. II. 
{tottos) which all Christians have in the priesthood of Mel- 
chisedec, and to the distinction which nevertheless exists 
between those who might bless, and laymen (IScwTai), who 
were not permitted to do so. S. Chrysostom's comment on 
the verse is, '^If thou bless in the foreigners' tongue, the 
ordinary Christian, not knowing what thou sayest, and unable 
to interpret it, cannot respond the Amen, not hearing ' For 
ever and ever,^ which is the end^" Justin Martyr mentions 
the Amen uttered by the people at the end of the consecra- 
tion as a special circumstance of the Christian Eucharist : 
" To the Chief of the Brethren is brought Bread, and a cup 
of Water and Wine ; which he taking, sends up {avaTrifiTret) 
praise and glory to the Father of all, by the Name of the 
Son and the Holy Ghost, and gives thanks at large for these 
Ilis favours vouchsafed unto us. And when he has finished 
the prayers and the thanksgiving, all the people present, by 
way of auspicious acclamation, say 'Amen''.'" ''And when 
the Chief Minister has offered the thanksgiving, and all the 
people have uttered their acclamation, those who are called 
among us Deacons make the distribution," &c. Here he 
seems to mark our common Priesthood by saying that the 
Celebrator " transmits" the prayers and thank-offerings to 
the Father; and his repeating the mention of the Amen 
indicates the importance of it. 

" What a thing it is/' exclaims again Tertullian ", " to pass 
from the Church of God unto the Church of the Devil ! . . . 
to weary with applauding an actor those hands which thou 
hast just been lifting up unto the Lord ! out of the mouth 
whereby thou hast uttered Amen to the Most Holy Thing, 
to bear testimony to a gladiator ! to say ' For ever and ever' " 
(which was another of the Eucharistical acclamations) "to 
any but our Lord Christ !" And Tertullian, we may notice, 
was the author of the famous saying, "Nonne et laici sacer- 
dotes sumus ?" 

How sad to think that so many of those who are called to 
so high dignity should forfeit or reject it, either by unworthi- 

» On 1 Cor., Horn. 35, t. iii. 477, ed. Savile. " Apol. § 64. 

" De Spcctaculis, 25. 

78 Sacramental Drift of the Epistle to the Hebrews. 

Chap. IT. ncss, or by refusing to own the mysterious Sacrifice Avliicli 
they are cjilled to assist in offering ! But those devout com- 
municants who rightly regard themselves as exercising their 
share in the Church's Priesthood, will find in this yet another 
reason for adoring thankfulness to Ilim who has so lifted 
them from the dust, enabling them, with and under Him, by 
the hands of one especially commissioned to represent Him, 
to offer to the Father His own Body and Blood. 

§ 48. But now, to confirm out of Holy Scripture the 
sacrificial meaning of the words of institution, let us turn 
first to the Epistle to the Hebrews, which may perhaps not 
inaptly be considered, from beginning to end, as one grand 
theological harmony, its theme being the pregnant saying, 
Tliat " the Law hath a shadow of good things to come, but 
not the very image of the things'^." What is the difference 
between a shadow and an image? Not simply that, both 
being representations, the one is solid and stationary, the 
other unsubstantial and fugitive, but this also, which, if I 
mistake not, is all-important in our present argument ; — that 
the word " shadow" may be used of any thing, which by ever 
so remote an analogy or faint resemblance calls a given ob- 
ject to the mind; whereas "image" implies a real similitude, 
an actual copy more or less exact, of something definitely 
known to the memory, or bodied forth by the imagination. 

And "the very image" [avTr] rj elKwv) adds the idea of 
perfection as an image, — instructs us that in this case we are 
to regard it as the authorized and authentic copy, the most 
perfect likeness of the thing represented which the material 
employed could admit of. The phrase seems to answer very 
nearly to the well-known philosophical form instanced in 
avTodv6p(07ros, avTO(To<p'ia^ and the like ; as if one should say, 
avToeiKwv — as complete an image as in the nature of things, 
and according to the mind of Him who framed them what 
they are, could possibly exist. 

The word 'x^apaKrrjp (= " express image," or " stamp,") in 

Heb. i. 3, seems to convey the same idea, in reference to the 

mystery of the revelation of the Father through the Son ; as 

we read, " No man hath seen God at any time : the only- 

, " Heb. X. 1. 

The Law has Shadows ; the Gospel, Images. 79 

begotten Son, wliicli is in the bosom of the Father, He hath Chap. IT. 
declared Him;" the Son, to speak with the Athanasian di- 
vines, being the airapaXKaKTos eUow, the unswerving, unde- 
viating, unmodified Image, of the Eternal Father. 

Applying this exposition to S. Paul's phrase, we come to 
some such result as the following ; — that the visible part of 
the Gospel system, or at least some portion of it which the 
Apostle w^as particularly speaking of, is not simply the shadow, 
but the reflection, as perfect as can be, of certain invisible 
things now existing in the heavenly places, of which the cor- 
responding part of the law was but an *' example," vvo- 
Beljfia, an indication by way of pattern or sample, and in 
comparison a most imperfect " shadow." In the Gospel you 
see the object itself, as in a mirror; the Law could at most 
present but a rough outline or sketch of it. And the Image 
in the Gospel is of things even now in being, only far above 
out of our sight ; whereas the Law was altogether prophetic, 
foreshadowing ra [xiXkovra a^aOa, a state and system which 
as yet had no existence. 

This comparison the Apostle proceeds to apply to the yearly 
sacrifices of the Law, especially those which took place on the 
day of atonement. He demonstrates their shadowy and imper- 
fect nature, by the witness, first of the Law which enacts them, 
decreeing their annual repetition'' ; then of the fortieth Psalm, 
predicting their abolition when He should come who should 
do God's wilF; and lastly, of the prophet Jeremiah, announc- 
ing that entire remission which would be inconsistent with 
the "remembrance of sins made again every year^.'' And so 
he passes on to describe "the very Image" which has taken 
place of these shadows, in words which answer to nothing 
surely on earth but the holy Sacrament of the Eucharist. 
"We have'' "boldness to enter into the holiest by the Blood of 
Jesus, by a new and living way, which He hath consecrated 
for us, through the veil, that is to say. His flesh ; and'^ we have 
"an High-priest over the house of God." Here is I'^KaLvicr- 
fjbos, an opening by solemn dedication of a new way into 
the holiest, and that by our Lord Himself, in virtue of His 
Blood, and by means of His Body, broken and rent, as was 

* Hcb. X. 2—4. ' Ibid. 5—10. if Ibid. 15—18. " Ibid. 19—25. 

80 The Eucharist, the Image of the heavenly Intercession. 

Cttap. it. the veil which represented it ; and this in His office as Priest, 
over God's temple. And then comes a distinct account of the 
preparation, i. e. Baptism with repentance, Faith, and Charity. 
For, 1. the "heart" must be "sprinkled from an evil con- 
science, and the body washed with pure water;" 2. "the pro- 
fession of our faith" must be "held fast without wavering;" 
and 3. we must "consider one another, to provoke unto love 
and to good works." 

What is this but the priesthood of the true Melchisedec 
exercised on earth ; as in other parts of the Epistle the exer- 
cise of it in heaven is described, either simply (as in the 
places noted below'), or as identical with one function of the 
Aaronical priesthood, the entrance of the high-priest into the 
holy of holies ? (as in chap. ix. and xiii. 10 — 16). If the Bread 
and Wine is not mentioned in words, it is sufficiently implied 
in these repeated references to Melchisedec; and the omis- 
sion itself is significant, shewing it to be the will of the Holy 
Ghost that the worshipper should not allow his mind to 
dwell in the least upon what he sees in this Sacrament. It is 
strictly to be to him an Image, lifting him up to the great in- 
visible reahties even now going on both here and in heaven. 

§ 49. This view of the Christian sacrifice was gathered 
from the Epistle to the Hebrews by some of the greatest and 
holiest Fathers of the Church, using the liturgical services to 
which they were accustomed as a commentary on that Epis- 
tle. Thus S. Ambrose, taking occasion from a verse in the 
Psalms ** : 

" Surely every man walketh in an image. In what image, 
then, doth man walk ? In that, of course, after the likeness 
whereof he was made ; i. e., after the image of God. Now 
the image of God is Christ, who is the briglUness of His 
glory, and the express Image of His Person. 

" Christ, therefore, the Image of God, came to the world that 
we might no longer walk in a shadow, but in an image. For 
every follower of the Gospel walketh in Christ, the Image. 
. . . Therefore, as the people of the Jews went astray, be- 
cause they walked in the shadow, so the Christian people go 

' Heb. iv. 14— V. 10; vii. 1—3, 12—28; viii. 1—7. 
^ On Ps. 38, [39,] v. 6. § 24. 

S. Ambrose on Legal Shadows and Gospel Images. 81 

not astray, walking as they do in tlie Image, and having the Chap. II. 
Sun of Righteousness shining out upon them. O good Image, 
not coloured with the implements of the painter's art, however 
brilliant, but wrought out in the fulness of the Godhead !" 

'"'First, then, the Shadow led the way, the Image hath 
come after, the Truth has yet to be. The Shadow in the 
Law, but the Image in the Gospel, the Truth in the heavenly 
places. The Shadow of the Gospel and of the congregation 
of the Church in the Law; the Image of the Truth to come 
in the Gospel; the Truth in the judgment of God. And so, 
■what things are now celebrated in the Church, the shadow 
of them was in the discourses of the prophets. Their shadow 
in the deluge, and in the Red Sea, when our fathers were 
baptized in the cloud and in the sea. Their shadow, in that 
rock which gushed ont in water, and followed the people. 
"Was not that, in shadow, a sacrament of this holiest mys- 
tery? Was not the water from the rock in shadow as it 
were blood from Christ, in that it followed the people who 
were hastening away from it, that they might drink and not 
thirst ; be redeemed, and not perish ? 

" But now the shade of night and of Jewish darkness hath 
departed, the day of the Church hath drawn nigh. Now we 
behold our good things by an image, and we possess the good 
things of the Image. \Ye have seen the Chief of Priests 
coming unto us — we have seen and heard Him offering for 
us His own Blood : we priests follow as we may to oflPer 
sacrifice for the people, though weak in deserts, yet honour- 
able in sacrifice. Because, although now Christ is not seen 
to offer, nevertheless He is Himself offered on earth when 
Christ's Body is offered ; or rather. He is Himself mani- 
fested as offering in us, it being His own word which sancti- 
fieth the sacrifice which is offered. And while He Himself 
stands by us, our Advocate with the Father, we nevertheless 
see Him not now : then we shall see Him, when the image 
shall have passed, and the truth come. Then no longer 
through a glass, but face to face, shall be seen the things 
that are perfect. 

" ' Go up, then, O man, into heaven, and thou shalt be- 

"• § 25. > § 26. 


83 S. Ambrose and S. Chrysostom on Gospel Sacrifice. 

Chap. II. hold the things whereof in this world there was the shadow, 
or the image. Thou shalt behold not in part, not in a dark 
parable, but in fulfilment ; not under a veil, but in the light. 
Thou shalt behold the true Light, the eternal and perpetual 
Priest, of whom thou didst here behold the images, — Peter, 
Paul, John, James, Matthew, Thomas. Thou shalt see the 
Perfect Man, not now in image, but in truth ; for * as is the 
heavenly, such are they also that are heavenly.' " 

More briefly again, in the book on the Duties of Chris- 
tian Ministers™: "Those things then we ought to seek, 
wherein is perfection, wherein is truth. Here is the Shadow, 
here the Image, there the Truth. The Shadow in the Law, 
the Image in the Gospel, the Truth in the heavenly places. 
Beforetime a lamb was the ofiering, or a bullock, now Christ 
is offered ; offered, that is, as Man, as capable of suflFering : 
and as Priest He offers Himself, that He may forgive our 
sins ; here in image, there in truth, where with the Father 
He interferes for us as an Advocate. 

" Here then we walk in an image, in an image we be- 
hold; there face to face, where full perfection is; because 
all perfection is in Truth.^' 

S. Chrysostom, expounding the Epistle to the Hebrews, 
assumes all along the substantial identity of the Eucha- 
ristical office with Christ's continual sacrifice in heaven. 

" ' The priests of old,' saith the Apostle, ' serve to the 
example and shadow of heavenly things.' What things 
speaks he here of as heavenly ? the things spiritual. For 
what if they are celebrated on earth? they are nevertheless 
worthy of heaven. For when our Lord Jesus Christ lies im- 
molated, when the Spirit draweth nigh, when He is here who 
sitteth on the right hand of the Father, when by the Laver 
men become His children, when they are denizens of the 
heavenly places, when we have there our country, our city, 
and conversation, when we are strangers to things here, — 
how are not all these ' heavenly things ?' Yea, let me ask, are 
not our hymns heavenly ? the very strains which the Divine 
choirs of the incorporeal powers chant on high, do not we 
also, here below, utter notes in harmony with them ? Is not 

'» Lib. i. n. 248. 

The Eucharist, all Heavenly and Spiritual. 83 

our Altar, too, heavenly ? Do you ask how ? It hath nought Chap. II. 
of flesh; the things presented there become altogether spiritual. 
Not into ashes, not into smoke, not into sacrificial steam is 
the Sacrifice dissolved, but it renders the Gifts set out there 
bright and glad to look upon. And how are the offices less 
than heavenly, seeing that unto the persons ministering unto 
them are still spoken, fz'oin the time that they were first 
uttered, the words, 'Whose sins ye retain, they are re- 
tained ; whose ye forgive, they are forgiven ?' How is it not 
all heavenly, when these have the very keys of heaven V 

A few lines on he writes : " See thou do all things accord- 
ing to the pattern which ivas shelved thee in the Mount. Did 
he see then as concerning the construction of the Temple 
only, or concerning the sacrifices and all the rest ? Nay, you 
will not be wrong in affirming this latter as well. For the 
Church is heavenly y yea, it is nothing else than a heaven °." 

Again, comparing the sprinkling of blood, by which the 
Mosaic covenant was inaugurated, with our Lord's Blood in 
the holy Eucharist, he writes": "Our purification was not 
bodily, but spiritual, and the Blood spiritual. How? Be- 
cause it flowed not from any body of an irrational animal, 
but from a Body formed by the Spirit. With this Blood, not 
Moses, but Christ sprinkled us, by the word which He spake : 
'This is the Blood of the New Testament for the remission 
of sins.' This word, instead of hyssop, being dipped in the 
Blood, sprinkles all. And whereas in that instance the body 
was cleansed from without, (the purification being bodily,) 
here, because the cleansing is spiritual, it enters into the 
soul, and cleanses it; not being simply sprinkled over us, 
but springing as a fountain in our souls. The initiated know 
what I mean. 

" Again, in the former instance, he used to sprinkle the 
surface alone; and the person sprinkled would wash himself 
again ; for he did not, of course, go about always stained with 
blood : but in the soul it is not so ; rather the Blood mingles 
itself with our very being, making it strong and chaste, and 
training it on to the Unapproachable Beauty itself." 

" Horn. xiv. on Hebrews viii. 5, t. iv. 507, ed. Sav. 
" Horn. xvi. on Heb. i\. 22, p. 518. 


81 Our daily Sacrifices One, not many. 

Chap. II. On cli. x. 3, he writes?: "God ordained (saiththe Apostle) 
continual offerings, by reason of weakness ; and ' a remem- 
brance of sins/ to take place. What then? do not we offer 
daily ? Yes, we offer, but it is by way of memorial of His 
death. And this memorial is one, and not many. How is it 
one, and not many ? Because it was once for all offered, as 

that one which was brought into the Holy of Holies 

For it is the same [Person] whom we offer always ; not now 
one [sheep], and to-morrow another, but always the same. 
And so the Sacrifice is One. . . . Christ is One everywhere, 
being in His fulness both in this place and in that. One Body. 
As, therefore, though offered in many places, He is but One 
Body, and not many bodies, so also but One Sacrifice. He is 
our High-Priest, Who offered the sacrifice which cleanseth us. 
That same we now also offer, that which was then offered, the 
Inexhaustible. This is done for a memorial of that which was 
then done. For, Do this, He saith, in remembrance of Me. 
We offer not another sacrifice, as the High-Priest then, but 
the same always. Or rather, we celebrate a memorial of a 
Sacrifice." Thus far of the Epistle to the Hebrews. 

§ 49. And there is another book of Holy Scripture, which 
seems from beginning to end as if the Holy Spirit had in- 
dited it partly for this very purpose, that it might impress on 
Christ's people the greatness of Christ's continual sacrifice, 
whether on earth in Holy Communion, or in heaven by His 
appearing as our Advocate. It begins by thanking Christ 
for having made us kings and priests to His Father "J. It in- 
troduces Him in the first vision as the Son of !Man clad in 
priestly apparel, the long robe and the girdle; and walking 
in the midst of golden candlesticks, the well-known furni- 
ture of the Temple ^ It relates to the fulness of the New 
Testament, such as it was completed at Pentecost ; for it is 
the revelation given to our Lord, as to the Prophet like unto 
Moses, of things which were " shortly to come to pass ;" it 
describes Him once and again as "Him that liveth, and was 
dead, and is alive for evermore ® ;" the Priesthood which it 

•• Horn. xvii. p. 523. i Rev. i. (5. ' Ibid. 12, 13. • Ibid, i. 18; ii. 8. 

Sacrificial Tenor of the Ajjocalpyse. 85 

(leliueates is that which He exercises in glory, not that Chap. II. 
which wrought out its work upon the Cross. He is here the 
antitype of Melchisedec, not of Aaron ; or rather of Aaron 
within the veil, not in the outer Tabernacle. His descrip- 
tions of Himself in the letters to the seven Churches, His 
promises and threatenings, are frequently associated with 
that most holy place : as where He says, " To him that 
overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden manna'," with a 
probable allusion to the manna laid up by the ark ; where He 
engages to give a " new name," such as " Holiness to the 
Lord;" or to clothe His faithful ones in white apparel; 
where He speaks of having ''the key of David;" of setting 
" an open door" before us; of making him that conquereth 
" a pillar in the Temple of God " ;" and finally, not as Priest, 
but as King, of granting to such an one to sit on His throne^ 
as He on His Father's throne. ^ 

The second vision, seen through a door opened in heaven ^^ 
and signifying also at its commencement that it related to 
things which should fellow on that opening, — i. e. on the 
rending of the veil, which is His Flesh, — has its sphere en- 
tirely in a place of Divine worship, call it Temple, Tabernacle, 
or Church, the very sanctuary of the Holy of Holies itself. 
There appears the mercy-seat, a throne in heaven, and He 
that sitteth upon it ; and around it the inferior thrones of 
God's people, twenty-four in number — twelve prophets and 
twelve apostles — as kings, sitting with crowns of gold on their 
heads; as priests, clothed in white raiment; lamps and a 
glassy sea before the throne, and cherubims within and 
around it. And it is all perpetual worship and thanksgiving ; 
the Evangelists represented by the cherubim sounding the 
key-note, and the twenty-four taking it up with the most 
solemn act of worship y. Still the High-Priest does not 
appear, for the mystery as yet is only of Creation ; but now, 
as a sealed book, comes that of Redemption, and One only in 
heaven and earth is found worthy to open it and loose its 
seals. Christ, our High-Priest and Sacrifice, is "the end of the 
Law for righteousness ;" and how is He symbolized ? not now 

t Ktv. ii. 17. - Ibid. iii. 5, 7, 8, 12, 21. -;. ' Ibid. iv. 1. r Ibid. 9—11. 

86 The Lamb in the Jpocalypse, Priest and Victim. 

Chap. II. as the Priest, but as the Victim ; a " Lamb, as it had been 
slain ^," but which now had ascended up on high to receive 
gifts for men, i. e. the sevenfold gifts of the Holy Spirit, both 
of power and of wisdom ; " the seven horns and seven eyes, 
which are the seven spirits of God sent forth into all the 
earth V Observe where He stands; "in the midst," or cen- 
tral point, before the throne or mercy-seat, — the regular 
station of the sacrificing Priest before the altar. For as a 
King, our awful Melchisedec " sitteth on the right hand of 
God the Father Almighty;" but as a Priest for ever He 
" standeth on the Mount Sion," in the height of the heavenly 
Jerusalem, "with His hundred forty and four thousand re- 
deemed from the earth," presenting them by His own merits 
" without fault before the throne of God ;" He standeth as 
slain : and (mark it well) as slain He is adored. For this is 
the order of the service. He cometh and taketh the Book 
of Prophecy (received by Him for men, as all other gifts, 
of His Father on His Ascension) out of the right hand of 
Him that sat upon the throne. The mention of the right 
hand is most commonly a token that mercy, as well as 
power, is being exercised. The receiving, then, of this gift 
of prophecy by the Mediator as a divine gift to the Church, 
is the signal for the whole Church to adore specially Him 
who so receiveth it for them. " The four beasts and four- 
and-twenty elders fell down before the Lamb." Surely, 
when the same Divine Being, the Lamb slain, receives for us 
and gives us His own Flesh and Blood, His own Self, His 
own Person, to be our very meat and drink, to nourish us to 
eternal life, less than adoring thankfulness is impossible. 

The ritual (so to call it) proceeds with circumstances which 
keep up in a remarkable way the notion that the whole is pro- 
bably an antitype of the Temple services, all but those which 
were strictly penitential or atoning. There is the sacrifice of 
praise, the thank-offering, for they have each his harp ; and 
of prayer, the peace-offering, for there are the " golden bowls 
(vials) full of odours, which are the prayers of the saints ^ ■" 
and there is, not the anticipation, but the memory of Christ's 
death ; for the new song which they sing in answer to the 

' Rev. V. 6. ' Ibid. i. 4. '• Ibid. v. 8. 

Liturgical Alhisions in the /Ipocalypse. 87 

call of the true David is, " Thou art worthy to take the book, Chap. IL 
and to open the seals thereof: for Thou wast slain, and hast 
redeemed us to God by Thy blood out of every kindred, and 
tongue, and people, and nation; and hast made us unto our 
God kings and priests : and we shall reign on the earth "/* 
And to correspond with the whole burnt-offering, there is 
the concluding act of adoration and homage in which the 
Angels and all creatures join. All these are portions of the 
Liturgy according to the use of every Church from the be- 
ginning : in our own Communion Office they are strongly 
marked ; every one familiar with it will be able at once to 
point out in it the Thanksgiving (" Lift up your hearts," &c.), 
the Intercession (in the Prayer for the Church Militant), the 
memory of Christ's death, and the Angels taking part in our 

Only the penitential and strictly sacramental passages find 
no counterpart in the heavenly office, being in their very 
nature remedial, and belonging to this imperfect world. But 
there is no such reason for us to forego adoration ; indeed, 
if we do, we seem to be turning ourselves out of the blessed 
company which S. John is describing. For as he heard 
every creature in earth, and under the earth, as well as in 
heaven, giving glory in its own way to Him that sat on the 
throne, in words which all the ancient Liturgies used at the 
end of their consecration prayer ; and the four Evangelists 
answering Amen, (for they represent the verbal worship of 
the Church) : so he saw both them and the twenty-four 
elders (namely, the whole body of Christians) begin their 
service with the act of falling down and worshipping the 
Lamb, and end it with the same homage to Him that sittetli 
upon the throne, i. e., as it may seem, to God the Father 
Almighty. Refusing to adore with the one would seem 
much the same kind of thing as refusing to say Amen with 
the other; a thought which surely no Christian can bear. 

As the vision goes on, it becomes more and more evident 

that we are in a place of sacrifice — the true Tabernacle or 

Temple. The events associated with each seal arc localized 

in this way : the first four are marked by voices from the 

' Rev. V. 9, 10. 

88 All the Visions connected with the Temple. 

Ch>p 'I- four Cherubiras respectively; the fifth and seventh by the 
mention of the golden altar before the throne, on which in- 
cense is offered with the prayers of all saints by an Angel, 
from a golden censer, and under which are seen the souls 
of the martyrs. It has four horns, and from it, as from the 
central spot in the holy place, having a measure of its own 
apart from the rest"*, the voices of prayer go forth ; in answer 
to which come the great turns in God's providence appointed 
for the due ordering of the Church and the world ; and 
from which conversely come the voices of holy resignation 
and thanksgiving, acknowledging how true and just are His 
judgments. Under the sixth seal, the true Israelites having 
been sealed, the countless multitudes from all lands renew 
their solemn service to God and the Lamb, this time stand- 
ing, and not falling prostrate, with palms in their hands, as 
on the Feast of Tabernacles, and in white robes, like the 
priests in the Temple j and their blessedness is to be before 
the throne of God. 

Further on, when a great crisis and agony is at hand, the 
Temple and Altar are to be measured by way of preparing 
for it®. And in contemplation of a great deliverance, the 
twenty-four elders enthroned before God fall on their faces 
and worship Him with thanksgiving: "And the four-and- 
twenty elders, which sat before God on their seats, fell upon 
their faces, and worshipped God*"." When, on the other 
hand, fearful judgments are coming, the temple of God in 
heaven is opened, and the ark of the covenant is seen". 
The hundred and forty and four thousand who follow the 
Lamb whithersoever He goeth, — i. e., as it should seem, in 
counsels of perfection, — they also appear before the throne, 
the four beasts, and the elders, with a song of their own, 
which ordinary Christians cannot learn. 

From the Temple in heaven goes forth the Angel who is 
to intercede with the Judge of all the earth, to reap His 
final harvest, the fields being ready ; and likewise two other 
Angels, avengers; one of them bearing a sharp sickle, the 
other having power over the fire; and the latter calls on 
the former to proceed with his vintage, the grapes of the 
<• IJev. xi. I, • Ibid. xi. 1. ' Ibid. 16. s Ibid. 19; xv, 5. 

Sympathy of Heaven with Earth in the Apocalypse. 89 

earth being ripe : iu which we may observe how our Lord Chap. II. 
delighteth iu mercy, for the harvest of them that are saved 
He reaps Himself, but the wrathful vintage He delegates to 
His ministers. 

The sea of glass mingled with fire** — thought to symbolize 
Baptism with water and the Holy Ghost, on which, as on a 
sure foundation, those Christians stand who are yet fight- 
ing victoriously — this also recalls to memory the molten sea, 
which Solomon placed at the entrance of the Temple. And 
the use of the present tense, " conquering," not as in our 
English, "having gotten the victory;" and their singing, 
not the "new song," but the song of Moses as well as of 
the Lamb, — these are pregnant signs of their belonging to 
the Church Militant, although they are admitted to share 
in the worship before the throne. 

The Angels with the vials or bowls of God's wrath come 
out of the Temple in priests' apparel, because it is the 
Church's prayer, "Avenge me of mine adversary," which 
prevails with God to interfere; and therefore one of the 
Cherubims or Evangelists, on the part of the Church, sup- 
plies them with the stores of "deadly wine" which they are 
to pour out. In the course of the ensuing plagues there is 
a voice of grave exultation from the earth, from the Angel 
of the waters, "Tliou art righteous, O Lord," which finds 
an echo (so to speak) from another Angel out of the altar 
iu heaven : " Even so, Lord God Almighty, true and right- 
eous are Thy judgments'." At the pouring out of the 
last vial there comes " a great voice out of the Temple of 
heaven, from the throne itself. It is done." One such 
word besides, and one only, is spoken in the New Testa- 
ment, "It is finished:" when He gave up the Ghost. The 
approaching end of the Passion (so to call it) of Christ's 
Mystical Body, is announced by the same Divine cry from 
the throne, as that of His natural Body had been from the 

In the following vision of great Babylon.', the scene of 
the prophetic survey is changed for a time; the mystery 
of iniquity, with its workings, is to be described in detail, 

'' Hcv. XV. 2. ' Ibid. xvi. 5, 7. ^ Ibid, xvii., xviii. 

90 Babylon and its Ritual set against the Church. 

Chap. ii. and we arc taken into the midst of it, and are made to see 
how craftily it is ordered so as to correspond with the mys- 
tery of godliness : Babylon being set against Jerusalem ; the 
beast from the abyss against the Lamb; the purple and 
scarlet against the white apparel; the names of blasphemy 
against the new Name; her foul adulteries against the mar- 
riage of the Lamb ; the wine of the wrath of her fornication 
against the river of the water of life; the brand of spiri- 
tual slavery in the forehead and right hand, against the holy 
and saving sign of the Cross ; and most especially the wor- 
ship of the dragon, and of the beast, his vicegerent, against 
the worship of God and the Lamb. That is the main point, 
the one worship contradicting the other. Mark, then, with 
what significance we are invited as it were to return from 
this fearful survey of Christendom, become heathen again, 
(the beast's deadly wound healed,) and the judgments im- 
pending on it, to the glorious uninterrupted ceremonial of 
the Temple in heaven, such as it had gone on night and day, 
from the hour of the High-Priest's ascension**; the four 
Cherubim and the twenty-four elders falling down as before 
and worshipping Him that liveth for ever and ever; the 
JNIediator giving the signal for praise, and the answer made 
with Amen and Alleluia. Only as the times on earth grow 
worse, the joyful commemoration, the marriage of the Lamb, 
is more and more distinctly announced, and the warning 
against any worship but that of God, how suitable soever it 
may appear even to a religious instinct, more and more 
plainly enforced^ 

The final vision of the Apocalypse appears to me (desir- 
ing to speak with all reverent doubtfulness) to begin with 
the beginning of chapter xx., and to recapitulate the history 
of the whole dispensation briefly, but more at large in the 
very termination of it. The thousand years on this hypo- 
thesis will denote the whole duration of the Church on 
earth, during which Satan is comparatively bound ; except 
the little time of his loosing at the end, which will corre- 
spond with the want of faith which the Son of Man will find 
when He cometh. This being taken as a brief sketch of the 
>■ Rev. xix. 1 Ibid. 10. 

The Apocalypse ends with an Eucharistical Feast. 91 

working of Christianity on earth, the next section, ver. 4 — 6, Chap. II. 
would seem to tell something of what is going on during the 
same period in the heavenly Jerusalem ; according to the 
manner of this Divine book. Observe, if it be so, how the 
vision goes on realizing the idea of a perpetual spiritual 
sacrifice, in which the souls of Christ's martyrs especially, 
but with them also the souls of all who have kept themselves 
unspotted from the world, — not worshipping the beast, nor 
enslaving themselves to him at all, — are living and reigning 
with Christ, as so many inferior Melchisedecs, priests at once 
and kings : — kings, for they sit on thrones, and judgment is 
given them ; and it is twice written of them, they reigned, 
and they are to reign, with Christ a thousand years ; — 
priests, for it is written again, " They shall be priests of 
God and of Christ." If of Christ as well as of God, to be 
sure they adore Christ as well as God in the spiritual com- 
memorative sacrifices wherein they are permitted to join 
with Him. 

And if those sacrifices, as the ancient Church always be- 
lieved, are all one with our Eucharist on earth, then part of 
our ritual, one should think, would be to adore Him also. 

And what is the conclusion, the perfect consummation and 
bliss, toward which these heavenly sacrifices are continually 
tending? It is a divine /ea*/, — " the marriage supper of the 
Lamb," — the river of the water of life, and the tree of life. 
You cannot read of it without thinking of what we spiritually 
receive in Holy Communion, any more than you can read of 
the services going before it without thinking of what we 
spiritually offer there. By eating of that which is sacrificed, 
we become "partakers with the altar™;" both of the altar of 
the Cross, and of the intercessory altar before the throne. 

§ 50. Two more points occur in the Apocalypse, both of 
them suggestive, as it seems to me, of the substantial identity 
of the earthly and heavenly sacrifices. The one, that they are 
both in a certain sense to come to an end, at " the time of 
restitution of all things." "With regard to our earthly Eucha- 
rist the point is unquestionable; we are to " shew the Lord's 
death till He come." For as Theodoret says", "After His 

■» 1 Cor. X. 18. " On 1 Cor. xi. 2G, t. iii. 238. 

9 1 Cessation of Sacrifice foreshewn in the Apocalypse. 

Chaf. it. coming, there is no more need of tlie symbols of His Body, 
the Body itself being visible." Or in more familiar and 
more beautiful language : " When that which is perfect is 
come, the use of sacraments shall cease ; because the blessed 
in heavenly glory need not any sacramental remedy**." This 
all will comprehend, so far as our sacrifices and sacraments 
have anj'thing of this earth. But Holy Scripture seems to 
affirm the same in a certain way of that which we sup- 
pose Holy Communion to be an image of. Concerning our 
Lord's kingly office, whereof Melchisedec is a type, although 
" of His kingdom there is no end," it is nevertheless plainly 
written, He shall in the end " deliver it up to God, even the 
Father." " The sceptre of that spiritual regiment over us in 
this present world is at the length to be yielded up into the 
hands of the Father which gave it; that is to say, the use 
and exercise thereof shall cease, there being no longer on 
earth any militant Church to govern ;" and the Son as 
Man shall be simply "subject unto Him that put all things 
under Him, that God may be all in all." In like manner, 
it would be no strange thing if His priestly office, whereby 
He fulfils the other half of Melchisedec's character, were 
declared to be so far at an end, as that the perpetual inter- 
cession and memorial Sacrifice for the application of His 
merits to sinners shall have ceased. And accordingly, in the 
heavenly Jerusalem, he whose visions had all along seemed 
to place Him in a temple, with its mercy-seat and altar of 
incense, and all its mysterious furniture, now writes, " I saw 
no temple therein: for the Lord God Almighty and the 
Lamb are the Temple of if." One is afraid to conjecture; 
but something of the same kind may possibly be intimated in 
the saying, " At that day ye shall ask in My name : and I 
say not unto you, that I will pray the Father for you : for 
the Father Himself loveth you, because ye have loved Me, 
and have believed that I came out from God"";" — in the in- 
vitation, "Enter thou into the joy of thy Lord;" — in the 
promise, " He shall gird Himself and come forth and serve 
them ;" coupled with the other promise, " His servants shall 

" Thomas \ Kempit>, iv. 11. •" Hooker, v. 54. 

■> Ecv. xxi. Tl. " S. John xvi. 16, 27. 

The " Wrath of the Lamb." 93 

serve Him, and they shnll see His face." If there be any- Chap. II. 
thing in these surmises^ then the Eucharist and the Com- 
memorative Sacrifice have this additional mark of identity, 
that they come to an end together. 

51. The other point worth noticing is the significant 
way in which " the wrath of the Lamb" is mentioned, cor- 
responding, as it may seem, to the threatenings against un- 
worthy receivers, and especially against such as Judas; in 
that they turn the Blood of the Sacrifice and Sacrificial 
Feast into " the wine of the wrath of God." That wine 
comes out of " the wine-press" which is " trodden without 
the city^:" and by whom is it trodden? by the Son of Man 
alone; as both Isaiah and S.John declare*: whether it be 
for mercy or for judgment, the sins and sufferings of the 
whole world are gathered into one heap, and laid upon His 
liead in Mount Calvary ; there He suffered " without the 
gate;" there is that wine-press which He describes in the 
parable of the Vineyard, as a necessary part of the mystery 
of the kingdom of God. The contents of that wine-press, duly 
taken, are the wine which Wisdom, i. e. the Son of God, hath 
mingled as part of her Sacrificial Feast" ; they are the " wines 
on the lees well refined," promised for the banquet which the 
Lord of Hosts was to make to all people in His mountain, 
the Church^ ; they are the water made wine, the best of the 
creation of God, provided for those called to the marriage 
supper of the Lamb. But unworthily and irreligiously par- 
taken of, they are " the wine of the wrath of God, which is 
poured out without mixture into the cup of His indigna- 
tion ;" they are the wine-cup of the fierceness of God's wrath 
to be given to the great Babylon, God being put in remem- 
brance of her'' ; they are " the wine of the wrath of her forni- 
cation." Sometimes it is Babylon herself who gives it them : 
"And there followed another Angel, saying, Bab5don is fallen, 
is fallen, that great city, because she made all nations drink 
of the wine of the wrath of her fornication'';" "With whom 
the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the in- 

• Rev. xiv. 20. » Isa. xxv. 6. 

' Isa. Ixiii. 3 j Rev. xix. 15. ' Ibid. 16—19. 

" Prov. ix. 5. * Rev. xiv. 8. 

91 The Threatenings in the Apocalypse imply a Feast. 

Chap. II. habitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine 
of her fornication y;" "And the woman was arrayed in purple 
and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones 
and pearls^ having a golden cup in her hand full of abomi- 
nation and filthiness of her fornication^" Sometimes, in the 
old prophets, God Himself gives it by the hand of Babylon : 
" Babylon hath been a golden cup in the Lord's hand, that 
made all the earth drunken; the nations have drunken of 
her wine; therefore the nations are mad";" "For thus saith 
the Lord God of Israel unto me ; Take the Avine-cup of this 
fury at My hand, and cause all the nations, to whom I send 
thee, to drink it*^;" "For in the hand of the Lord there is a 
cup, and the wine is red ; it is full of mixture ; and He pour- 
eth out of the same : but the dregs thereof, all the wicked 
of the earth shall wring them out, and drink them"." In 
all instances it is the wox'ld, more or less, profanely aping 
the Church ; the Sacraments of the Church turned into sa- 
craments of the Devil : that special horror and sin of pro- 
faning Christ's Sacrifice, which is in kind the sin forbidden 
in the third commandment, is spoken of as committed in 
the greatest conceivable intensity. 

The threatenings, therefore, of the Book of Revelations, as 
well as its rewards and promises, suppose a sacrificial feast, 
and the Victim worthily or unworthily received. They repre- 
sent Blood as given to wicked Christians to drink, which 
Blood is the Blood of the Son of God crucified afresh by 
their sins ; they are guilty of it, and they receive it to their 
damnation. This tends, so far, to confirm the idea that the 
heavenly ritual in the Apocalypse is, in fact, our Eucharistic 
ritual, and that the adoration there practised is a precedent 
for adoring in the Eucharist. 

On the whole, we should, perhaps, be borne out in affirm- 
ing, after consideration of what has been alleged both from 
natural piety and from probable interpretation of Scripture, 
that the presumption is very strong in favour of such adora- 
tion, — so strong, that unless there can be shewn an express 
precept to the contrary, a loving and thankful Christian 

y Rev. xvii. 2. ^ Ibid. 4. » Jer. li. 7. 

i> Ibid. XXV. 15. •= Ps. Ixxv. 8. 

Appeal to Sacred Antiquity. 95 

would practise it of course ; so strong, that such an one might Chap. II. 
with confidence apply to this case the first half of the divine 
canon, " Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God," without fear 
of inadvertently violating the latter, the negative portion of 
the same, " Him only shalt thou serve." 



§ 1. But what says Christian antiquity? for it is here as 
in respect to the Articles of the Faith, or the Canon of Holy 
Scripture itself. As we could not admit any thing into the 
Catholic Creed merely upon its appearing to ourselves, ever 
so strongly, that it was taught as necessary to salvation in Holy 
Scripture ; as we might not insert any book, chapter, or verse 
in our copies of God's Holy Word merely upon our own strong 
persuasion of its being so good and Scriptural that it must 
have been inspired ; so also in respect of the Holy Commu- 
nion, (as of other main points of evangelical worship,) our 
own Church instructs us that, " before all other things, this 
we must be sure of especially, that this Supper be in such 
wise done and ministered, as our Lord and Saviour did and 
commanded to be done, as His holy Apostles used it, and the 
good Fathers in the primitive Church frequented it. For, (as 
the worthy man S. Ambrose saith,) ' He is unworthy of the 
Lord that otherwise doth celebrate that mystery, than it was 
delivered by Him ; neither can he be devout that otherwise 
doth presume than it was given by the Author''.'" 

If, then, we found a consent of Fathers and Liturgies in 
prohibiting the worship of Christ's Person, present in the 
Eucharist by the presence of His Body and Blood, we durst 
not practise it j our reasoning from Scripture and the coun- 
sel of our own heart must give way : and if we found the 
matter left open, though we might humbly and modestly use 

^ Homily I. of the Sacrament, &c., near the beginning. 

96 8. Cyril enjoins Jdoraiion as a Tradition ; 

Chap. III. sucli worcship ourselves, we could not positively judge tliat it 
was an error to orait it^ much less could we denounce the 
prohibition of it as touching a vital portion of Christian doc- 
trine, i. e. the doctrine of the Ileal Objective Presence of 
Christ's Body and Blood in that Sacrament. But the case 
stands far otherwise : for, first, we have positive historical 
evidence sufficient to convince any fair mind that in the 
fourth century Christians did universally adore Christ so 
present, — such evidence as cannot be set aside without 
greatly damaging the witness of antiquity in regard both of 
the Creed and the Canon of Holy Scripture. Secondly, we 
have nothing at all to indicate that such worship was a recent 
innovation, or a partial and unnecessary development; but 
we have very much in the way of presumptive evidence im- 
plying its existence among Christians from the very begin- 
ning, although, for a reason to be explained, it is seldom, if 
ever, directly enjoined in the Liturgies. 

§ 2. First, then, for the direct historical evidence. About 
the middle of the fourth century, S. Cyril, then presbyter, 
afterwards Patriarch of Jerusalem, wrote his Catechetical 
Lectures; in the last of which, instructing the newly con- 
firmed how to behave themselves in receiving Holy Com- 
munion, he says, ^' After having partaken of the Body of 
Christ, approach also to the cup of His Blood, not stretching 
forth thine hands, but bending, and saying, in the way of 
adoration and religious ceremonial % Amen ; be thou hallowed 
also by partaking of the Blood of Christ." The word ren- 
dered "religious ceremonial" appears especially to be limited 
to that kind of worship which acknowledges a peculiar pre- 
sence of Deity. That and adoration, taken together, seem to 
be nearly equivalent to \arpela, in its definite theological 
meaning. The posture is evidently not specified, any further 
than this — that it must be either kneeling, prostration, or 
standing with a reverent inclination of the body, — venerabili- 
ter curvi, as a later authority expresses it. 

The ground of this injunction, the Real Presence, had 
been repeatedly laid down by S. Cyril before, in words well 
known, of which I will cite a few out of many : " Regard not 

and grounds it on the Real Presence. 97 

thou tlie Bread and Wine as merely such, for it is the Body Chap. III. 
and Blood of Christ, according to our Lord's declaration. 
And what if thy senses outwardly suggest the other? yet 
let faith confirm thee ; judge not of the matter by thy taste, 
but by the faith do thou assure thyself, without any man- 
ner of doubt, that He counteth thee worthy of the Body 
and Blood of Christ ^." And elsewhere : " Approaching, 
therefore, come not with thy wrists extended or thy fin- 
gers open, but make thy left hand as if a throne for thy 
right, which is on the eve of receiving the King. And hav- 
ing hallowed thy palm, receive the Body of Christ, saying 
after it Amen »." 

The tradition, then, of the mother Church of Christendom 
in the middle of the fourth century, was to receive with ado- 
ration, just because it is the Body and Blood of Christ. There 
are no subtleties, no explanations ; the simple word of the 
Lord is support, exposition, reason, and guidance sufficient. 
And it does not come at all as a portion of S. Cyril's own 
teaching, but as a rehearsal of the established custom of the 
Church of Jerusalem. " Hold fast these traditions unspotted, 
and keep your-elves free from offence. Sever not yourselves 
from the Communion ; deprive not yourselves, by the pollu- 
tion of sins, of these holy, spiritual mysteries ''." He speaks 
as earnestly, and almost in the same words, as he had before 
spoken of the Articles of the faith : " Take heed, therefore, 
brethren, and hold the traditions which ye are now re- 
ceiving, and write them on the table of your heart." Then, 
having rehearsed the Nicene Creed, he goes on : "This keep 
with godly fear, lest haply any of you, being pufi'ed up, be 
spoiled by the enemy ; lest some heretic pervert any of the 
things delivered unto you. For as a creed is laying down 
the money on the table, which thing we have now done, so 
God requires of you the account of the deposit. / charge you, 
saith the Apostle, as before God, Who quickeneth all things, 
and before Jesus Christ, Who before Pontius Pilate witnessed 
the good confession, that ye keep this Faith as it hath been 
delivered without spot, until the appearing of our Lord Jesus 
Christ. The treasure of life hath now been committed unto 
thee, and the Master looks for His deposit at His appear- 

' xxil 6. ' xxiii, 21. ^ xxiii. 23. 


98 Testimony of S. Ambrose. 

Chap. Ill, ing \" And it is observable that in both instances he follows 
the phraseology of S.PauP, who in one place warns us to 
meet the approaching Antichrist by standing and holding 
fast the traditions of the Creed ; in another, praises the 
Corinthians for keeping in all points the "ordinances" 
{niarg., traditions) as he delivered them to them. And it is 
clear that the " traditions" he refers to relate to the public 
service in solemn assemblies, and most especially to the Holy 
Communion. The custom therefore of adoration on that 
occasion, was not simply enjoined in the Church of Jerusalem 
at that time, but it was enjoined as an old tradition, in the 
same words in which the Apostle had urged or recommended 
the rules which he himself had delivered. Is it too much to 
say that S. Cyril virtually represents it as being an apostoli- 
cal tradition ? At any rate, the mere fact of its having been 
then a part of the rubric in so venerable a Church, is a 
reason why it should not be hastily condemned as in itself 
wrong or superstitious. 

§ 3. About 381, the year of the second (Ecumenical Coun- 
cil, S. Ambrose, by desire of the Emperor Gratian, wrote his 
three books " Of the Holy Spirit/' to prove and illustrate, 
against certain heretics, the Godhead of that Divine Person. In 
book iii. c. 11, he is dealing with an objection alleged by them 
from S. John iv. 23, 24. Their argument was, if I rightly 
comprehend it, as follows: "In the saying, 'The true wor- 
shippers shall worship the Father in spirit and in truth : for 
the Father seeketh such to worship Him : God is a Spirit ; 
and they that worship Him must worship Him in spirit and 
in truth,' — the words 'spirit and truth' signify j»er50W5, through 
whom and in whom the Father willeth to be worshipped." 
This they take for granted, and go on thus to reason upon it : 
" That person through whom and in whom another is wor- 
shipped is not to be worshipped himself. But the Father is 
worshipped through and in the Spirit ; therefore the Spirit 
is not to be worshipped." 

S. Ambrose 'replies to this, first, what interpreters in gen- 
eral would say, that " spirit," as is very usual, means a spi- 
ritual grace, — the grace of loving devotion in the heart, — as 
"truth" means a deep conviction of the reality of the un- 

' V. 12, 13. ^ 2 Thess. ii. 15; 1 Cor. xi. 2. ' § 70. 

Principle of Adoration according to S. Ambrose. 99 

approachable Godhead. (So S. Ambrose here takes it ; but. Chap. 111. 
according to the ordinary use of the word ' truth' in S. John's 
Gospel, it would rather seem to mean the substance of the 
kingdom of heaven, as opposed to the shadows of the world 
and of the Law.) 

But, secondly, granting that the words in question do really 
mean the Persons of the Spirit and of Christ, then " God is 
adored in the Truth, just as He is adored in the Spirit. 
Either, then, the two are alike inferior, — which God forbid 
thou shouldst believe, — and so not even the Son is adored ; 
or (which is the truth) the unity of the one is just like that 
of the other; and then the Spirit also is to be adored"." 
" Therefore," he repeats, " if in this place they understand 
truth according to the usual sense, let them understand spirit 
to be spiritual grace, and there is no offence ; or if they ex- 
plain the Truth to be Christ, let them say that He must not 
be worshipped. — But then," he goes on, "they are refuted by 
the doings of religious men, by the whole course of the Scrip- 
tures. Thus Mary adored Christ, and is therefore ordained 
the first messenger of the resurrection to the Apostles, un- 
doing the hereditary bond, and the grievous fault of woman- 
kind. For so the Lord wrought in a mystery ; that where 
sin had abounded, grace might much more abound. And with 
reason is a woman commissioned unto men; that she who 
had been first to be a messenger of sin to the man, might 
be the first messenger of grace. 

" The Apostles, too, adored ; and even because they bore 
the witness of the faith, they retained the office of being mas- 
ters in the faith. The Angels, too, adored, — of whom it was 
written. And let all His angels adore Him. 

"And they adore not only His Godhead, but also His 
Footstool, as it is written ", And adore His Footstool, for it is 
holy. Else, if they deny that in Christ the mysteries of 
Incarnation also are to be adored, wherein we discern (so 
to speak) express traces of Divinity, and the ways of the 
heavenly Word ; let them read how the very Apostles adored 
Him rising in the glory of His flesh. 

" Therefore, if it is no disparagement to Christ, that God is 

'" § 72. - Ps, xcix. (xcviii.) 5. 

H 2 

100 Adoration practised in S. Ambrose's time. 

Chap. III. adored in Christ, because Christ too is adored ; neither is it, 
of course, any disparagement to the Spirit, that God is 
adored in the Spirit. . . . 

"But let us consider liovv the prophet's saying, Adore His 
footstool, bears upon the mystery of our Lord's Incarnation. 
For we must not interpret the word ' footstool' by the custom 
of men, since God is neither corporeal nor finite, that we 
should imagine a stool placed for the support of His feet. 
Neither do we read of anything to be adored, save God; 
because it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, 
and Him only shalt thou serve. How then should the prophet 
give a rule contrary to the Law, nurtured as he was in the 
Law, and instructed in the Law ? The inquiry, then, is no 
ordinary one, and we must very accurately consider what 
' footstool' means. For elsewliere we read, ' Heaven is My 
throne, and earth is My footstool.^ Well, but neither may 
we adore the earth, because it is one of God's creatures. 

" But let us see ; perhaps the prophet means that that earth 
is to be adored which the Lord Jesus took on Him in as- 
suming flesh. And so by the footstool the earth is under- 
stood, and by the earth the Flesh of Christ, which, to this 
day, we adore in the Mysteries, and which the Apostles, as 
we said above, did adore in the Lord Jesus. For Christ is 
not divided, but One; neither, when He is adored as the Son 
of God, is it denied that He was born of a Virgin. The Sacra- 
ment, then, of the Incarnation being adorable, and the In- 
carnation the work of the Spirit, as it is written. The Holy 
Ghost shall come upon thee, and the poiucr of the Highest shall 
overshadovj thee, and the Holy Thing which shall be born of 
thee shall be called the Son of God, — doubtless the Holy Spirit 
also is to be adored, since He is adored who, as to His Flesh, 
is born of the Holy Ghost. 

" And to prevent any one's extending this to the Virgin 
Mary, Mary was the temple of God, not the God of the 
temple. And therefore He onlj^ was to be adored who was 
performing His work in the temple. 

"You see that God's being adored in the Spirit is no 
ground of objection, since the Spirit also is adored." 

This long passage of S. Ambrose is here cited, not only 

Testimony of S. Augustine. 101 

on account of the express and inevitable testimony which he Chap. III. 
bears to the custom of the Church in his time, — " The earth" 
(which we are bidden to adore) " means the Flesh of Christ, 
which to this day we adore in the Mysteries ;" — but also be- 
cause that great theologian and confessor so clearly sets out 
the principle and reason of such worship, according to the 
analogy of the faith. The Body present in the Eucharist is 
to be adored on the same ground Avhich made it right for 
S. Mary Magdalen and the Apostles to adore our risen Lord ; 
and it follows, from the unity of His Person, that to refuse 
It adoration is to act as if Christ were divided, and not One ; 
and he signifies incidentally, but not less clearly, that all 
things and all creatures which are merely adjuncts of His 
Person, not essential parts of His humanity, (as His Soul 
and Body both are,) — such things, how high and precious 
soever, are not to be adored j no, not if they come incon- 
ceivably near to Himself. The two short sentences relating 
to the Virgin Mary bring out this caution very forcibly. 

§ 4. Moreover S. Ambrose's testimony is distinctly re- 
peated by his spiritual son, S. Augustine. He, in his 
popular exposition of the 99th Psalm, delivered in Africa 
about thirty years later than what has been quoted from 
S. Ambrose, — i. e. about 414-15, — adopts S. Ambrose's in- 
terpretation ; or rather appeals to it without all question as 
to the interpretation of the Church. 

" Worship His footstool °. See, brethren, what He com- 
mandeth us to worship. In another passage of the Scrip- 
tures it is said. The heaven is My throne, and the earth is My , 
footstool. Doth He then bid us worship the earth, since in 
another passage it is said that it is God's footstool ? How 
then shall we worship the earth, when the Scripture saith 
openly, Thou shall worship the Lord thy God ? Yet here it 
saith. Fall down before His footstool ; and explaining to us 
what His footstool is, it saith. The earth is My footstool. I am 
in doubt ; I fear to worship the earth, lest He who made the 
heaven and the earth condemn me; again, I fear to refrain from 
worshipping the footstool of my Lord, because the Psalm bid- 
deth me fall down before His footstool. I ask, what is His foot- 

' Ps. xcix. [xcviii.] 5. 

102 Symbolical Meaning of "Adore His Footstool.'^ 

Chap. Ill, stool ? and the Scripture telleth me, The earth is My footstool. 
In hesitation I turn unto Christ, since I am herein seeking 
Himself; and I discover how the earth may be worshipped 
without impiety, — how His footstool may be worshipped 
without impiety. For He took upon Him earth from earth ; 
because flesh is from earth, and He received flesh from the 
flesh of Mary. And because He walked here in very Flesh, 
and gave that very Flesh to us to eat for our salvation, — and 
no one eateth that Flesh unless he hath first worshipped, — we 
have found out in what sense such a footstool of our Lord 
may be worshipped ; and not only that we sin not in wor- 
shipping it, but that we sin in not worshipping. 

" But doth the flesh give life ? Our Lord Himself, even 
when He was speaking in praise of this same Earth, said, It is 
the Spirit that quickeneth, the flesh profiteth nothing. Therefore 
when thou bowest thyself down prostrate before the ' earth,' 
look not as if unto earth, but unto that holy One whose foot- 
stool it is that thou dost worship ; for thou dost worship it 
on His account : wherefore He hath added here also. Fall 
down before His footstool, for He is holy. Who is holy? He 
in whose honour thou dost worship His footstool. And when 
thou worshippest Him, see that thou do not in thy thought 
remain in the flesh, and fail to be quickened by the Spirit ; 
for He saith, 7^ is the Spirit that quickeneth, the flesh profiteth 
nothing. But when our Lord praised it, He was speaking of 
His own Flesh, and He had said, Except a man eat My Flesh, 
he shall have no life in him. Some disciples of His, about 
seventy, were off'ended, and said, This is an hard saying ; who 
can hear it ? And they went back, and walked no more with 
Him. It seemed unto them hard that He said. Except ye 
eat the Flesh of the Son of Man, ye have no life in you : they 
received it foolishly ; they thought of it carnally, and imagined 
that the Lord would cut off^ parts from His Body and give 
unto them ; and they said, This is a hard saying. It was 
they who were hard, not the saying ; for unless they had 
been hard, and not meek^ they would have said unto them- 
selves, He saith not this without reason, but there must be 
some latent mystery herein. They would have remained 
with Him, softened, not hard; and would have learnt that 

Adoration taken for granted by the Fathers. 103 

from Him, which they who remained, when the others de- Chap. III. 
parted, learnt. For when twelve disciples had remained with 
Him, on the others' departure, they, as if in grief for the 
death of the former, pointed out to Him, how the other 
were offended by His words, and turned back. But He in- 
structed them, and saith unto them. It is the Spirit that 
quickeneth, but the flesh projiteth nothing : the words that I 
have spoken unto you, they are spirit and they are life. Un- 
derstand spiritually what I have said : ye are not to eat this 
Body which ye see ; not to drink that Blood which they who 
will crucify Me shall pour forth. I have commended unto 
you a certain mystery ; spiritually understood, it will quicken. 
Although it is needful that this be visibly celebrated, yet it 
must be spiritually understood. magnify the Lord our 
God, and fall down before His Footstool, for He is holy." 

In this passage I would remark the same three things 
which were observable in S. Ambrose ; the fact, the doctrinal 
aspect of it, and the caution against abuse. The fact, in 
His saying, " No man eateth that Flesh unless he hath first 
worshipped ;" the doctrinal aspect of it, in that it is an ac- 
knowledgment, first of the Incarnation, and then of the Heal 
Presence. " Of the flesh of Mary He took Flesh, and in that 
very Flesh walked here among us." Again : " that very Flesh 
He gave us to be eaten for our salvation." Thirdly, there 
is the caution against low and carnal understanding drawn 
from our Lord's saying, " It is the Spirit that quickeneth ; 
the flesh profiteth nothing." Though it is " Ipsa Caro " 
which we are commanded to adore, it is not " Hoc Corpus 
quod videtis;'^ the very Body, but not subject to the senses. 
I would observe, also, that neither of these great teachers in 
any degree grounds the practice of adoration upon the verse 
on which they are commenting, but taking the practice for a 
thing approved and granted, they allege it, both of them, as 
pointing out the true meaning of that vei'se ; and S. Am- 
brose, in particular, as strengthening the proof that the Holy 
Spirit is to be worshipped; which proposition he was then 
maintaining against the Arians or Macedonians. 

§ 5. It may be well to add a few words on the ancient ren- 
dering of the verse in question. As far as I have been able to 

104 The Footstool, the Holy Mountain, mean Christ's Manhood- 

Chap. Ill, find, the phrase here rendered adorate, or " worship," ? •IIH'?'^'!' 
is in every place but three unquestionably followed by a noun 
denoting the object of worship. When the place or other 
adjunct is to be mentioned, the preposition used is ?N, or ?y., 
or the like — as Psalm v. 7 ; cxxxviii. 2 ; Is. Ix. 14. The three 
places which might seem exceptional, as to the use of the 
particle ? with the verb of worship, are Ps. exxxii. 7 ; this 
of which we are speaking, xcix. 5 ; and the last verse of 
the same Psalm. The two former in the Hebrew are one : 
"Worship the footstool;" "we will worship" V^p DhnS, " His 

There remains the last verse of Ps. xcix., where the He- 
brew verb and preposition are the same, only the noun fol- 
lowing, instead of " His footstool," is " His holy hill," Now 
in 1 Chron. xxviii. 2, David speaks of building a house of 
rest " for the ark of the covenant of the Lord, and for the 
footstool of our God ;" and in Lam. ii. 1, " He remembered 
not His footstool in the day of His anger." Here we see the 
Temple, or the most holy part of it, represented as the Lord's 
footstool, in allusion, no doubt, to the Cherubim appearing 
over the mercy-seat, and the Lord enthroned in His glory 
between them. But His Temple, He Himself tells us, is the 
type of His Body, — both of His natural Body, and of His 
mystical Body the Church ; and concerning this latter He 
says in Isaiah Ix. 13, "I will make the place of My feet," 
i. e. My footstool, " glorious." 

Again, tl^e holy mountain itself, as S. Augustine remarks 
on this verse, is a signal type of Christ, as well as of the 
Church : — " What is His mountain ? we read elsewhere of 
this mountain, that it w as 'a stone cut out of a mountain 
without hands, which brake in pieces all the kingdoms of the 
earth, and grew, and became a great mountain, and filled 
the whole earth p.' What is the mountain whence the stone 
was cut out without hands? The kingdom of the Jews in 
the first place, because they worshipped one God. Out of it 
was hewn a stone — our Lord Jesus Christ. What is ' cut 
out without hands ?' born of the nation of the Jews, without 
agency of man. That stone grew, and in its growth brake 

p Dan. ii. 35. 

The Fathers' Testimony to the Fact indisputable. 105 

to pieces all the kingdoms of the earth, and it hath become Chap. III. 
a great mountain, and filled the whole earth. This is the 
Catholic Church ; and do ye rejoice that ye are in com- 
munion with it V 

If, then, according to that identity of Christ and His 
Church which in some sense is continually affirmed in Holy 
Scripture, we suppose " His holy hill" in the last verse of 
Psalm xcix. to be equivalent to " His footstool" in ver. 5, 
the precepts in the two, spiritually taken, come to the same 
thing — a command to adore the Son of God in His holy 
humanity; and then most especially, when His Humanity 
is not only most signally manifested, but also mysteriously 
communicated to us; where the natural Body and mystical 
Body are made more entirely one than on any other occa- 
sion here on earth. 

§ 6. It is obvious, however, that our appeal to these 
Fathers does in no degree involve the correctness either of 
the Septuagint and Vulgate rendering, "Adore His foot- 
stool," or of the patristical interpretation of it. Neither 
the fact of universal adoration, nor the connection of it with 
the substance of the faith, depends at all for its evidence on 
that verse itself. The translation may be ever so incorrect, 
and the mystical meaning alleged ever so fanciful, and yet 
the passages will be available to demonstrate, beyond the 
shadow of doubt, that our Lord's Body was then universally 
adored in the Eucharist. There is no getting rid of such 
sayings as " Caro Christi, quam hodieque in mysteriis adora- 
mus;" "Nemo illam carnem manducat, nisi prius adora- 
verit." If they are genuine — which no one disputes — they 
prove the fact : at least, as concerns the Churches of Italy 
and Africa, i. e. the whole West. For we cannot conceive 
S. Ambrose or S. Augustine, the one in a public homily, the 
other in a controversial treatise written by an emperor's 
desire against a great and influential party, affirming what 
any one might know by the witness of his own eyes to be 
false. If their evidence is not to be accepted here, neither 
need it in the matter of infant baptism, nor of the canon of 
Scripture, nor of any other of the many ecclesiastical usages 
which they mention, and of which every one of their Chris- 

106 S. Augustine's Testimony to Honoratus. 

CiTAP. Iir. tian contemporaries must have been just as cognizant as 
themselves. In short, the matter is too plain to bear argu- 
ing upon. 

Nor ought it to be unobserved that S.Ambrose in par- 
ticular implies the practice of adoration to be not only- 
general in his time, but to have come down from the be- 
ginning. He does not say "hodie," but "hodieque;" not 
"now-a-days,"' but "to this day.'*' The word is constantly 
so employed, of things done now as of old, circumstances 
and usages recalling old times, indications of uninterrupted 

§ 7. There is another well-known passage of S. Augustine, 
in his letter to Honoratus on the Grace of the New Testa- 
ment', in which he expounds the 22nd Psalm from be- 
ginning to end. When he comes to verse 30, — one of his 
objects being to point out how that the grace of the New 
Testament stood not in temporal, but in eternal promises, — 
he proceeds as follows : — " ' All they that are rich upon earth 
have eaten and worshipped;' by 'the rich upon earth' we 
are to understand the proud, if we were right before in un- 
derstanding 'the poor' to mean the humble. ... For not 
without significance is the distinction made between them, 
in that having said before of the poor, They shall eat and be 
satisfied, here, on the contrary. All the rich of the earth have 
eaten and worshipped. For they, too, are brought to the 
Table of Christ, and receive of His Body and Blood; but 
they worship only, — they are not also satisfied, becaiise they 
do not imitate Him. For although they feed on Him that 
is poor, they disdain to be poor. For Christ indeed suffered 
for us, leaving us an example that we should follow His steps ; 
but in that He humbled Himself, and became obedient unto 

1 Thus the Dial, de Oratoribus in idem jus, vi adempta." Velleins, i. 4 : 

the works of Tacitus, c. 34 : " Crassus, " Vires autem veteres earum urbium ho- 

Caesar, Pollio, ... in early youth dealt dieque magnitudo ostentat moenium." 

with their respective adversaries in As in each of these phrases both are 

those speeches, 'quas hodieque cum distinctly expressed, the old object or 

admirationelegimus." Cicero, inhislast state of things, and the existing frag- 

Oration against Verres, § 25 : " ITo- ment or result of it, — so in the pas- 

dieque (' to this day') omnes sic habent sage under consideration : " the same 

persuasum ;" — he is speaking of a trans- Flesh whiih the Apostles adored in the 

action which had occurred long be- Lord Jesus Christ, we, hodieque, ' down 

fore. Liv. i.l7 : "Hodieque in legibus to this day,' adore in the Sacrament." 
magistratibuFque rogandis usurpatur ' Ep. xl. § 66, C7. 

Testimony of Theodoret. 107 

death, even t?ie death of the cross, the rich scorn Him, and Chap. III . 
refuse to suffer the like. . . . But since God hath raised Him 
from the dead, and given Him the Name which is above 
every name, . . . they too, moved by the glory of His Name 
in the universal Church, come to the table, eat and adore ; 
but they are not satisfied, because they do not hunger and 

thirst after righteousness ; for such shall be filled By 

preaching the world has been moved, so that all the ends of 
the earth remember themselves and turn unto the Lord, and 
all the families of the nations worship before Him. ... By this 
enlargement of the Church even the proud, i. e. the rich of 
the earth, are brought nigh, to eat ; and though not satisfied, 
yet they adore," 

Here it is much to our purpose to remark how the writer 
again and again mentions the adoration of all communicants 
as a matter of course, and universally known ; and also as 
being a signal accomplishment of a prophecy; the very 
terms of which prophecy make it co-extensive with the 
whole Church. 

§ 8. In the East we have, about the middle of the fifth 
century, the testimony of Theodoret, published, as is sup- 
posed, a few years before the Council of Chalcedon, prin- 
cipally to counteract the heresy then arising, which denied 
the continuance of Christ's human nature. The passage is 
well known, being constantly and unanswerably cited as a 
testimony against the dogma of Transubstantiation, and for 
that of the Real Objective Presence. 

The heretic alleges, that as, by consent of Christians, "the 
symbols of the Lord's Body and Blood are one thing before 
the priest's invocation, but after it are changed and become 
another, so the Lord's Body since His Ascension is changed 
into the Substance of the Deity'." The reply is, "Nay; for 
it is untrue that after consecration the mystical symbols 
depart out of their proper nature; remaining as they do 
in their former substance, and figure, and form, and being 
visible and tangible, just as they were before. But the in- 
ward sense perceives them as being simply what they have 
become, and so they are the object of faith, and are adored, 

' Eranistes, Dial ii. t. iv. 126, ed. Schnlze. 

108 TheodorcC s Statement uncuntradicted. 

Chap. Ill, as being those very things which they are believed to be. 
Compare, accordingly^ the image with its archetype, aud 
thou wilt see the resemblance. For the type must needs 
resemble the reality. And thus that Body, while it hath 
its former aspect, figure, and outline, and, in one word, its 
substance as a Body, hath nevertheless, since the resurrec- 
tion, become immortal and incorruptible. It is deemed wor- 
thy to sit on the right hand, and is adored by the whole 
creation, as being divinely named the Body of the Lord of 

Heretics, it appears, professed to join with the orthodox 
in every point of this doctrine of the Eucharist. It was 
taken as an irrefragable, undeniable ground, from which to 
set out in reasoning on other mysteries. And in respect of 
the adoration in particular, the worship of Christ's Body by 
all Christians in the Eucharist is studiously set down as the 
correlative of the worship of the same Body by all created 
beings in heaven. And the Church's seal was in a manner 
set to this doctrine, at least by implication. For had there 
been any thing at that time supposed heretical in it, there 
was no lack either of subtle and bitter opponents to expose, 
or of sound and watchful theologians, like S. Leo, to correct 
the error : as the most cursory glance at that page of Church 
history will shew, in which Theodoret's name is one of the 
most conspicuous, more by the restlessness of his accusers 
than by any special doings of his own. In fact, it is well 
known that he was both upholden by S. Leo, and in the 
Council of Chalcedon restored to his see by acclamation on 
saying anathema to Nestorius ; in whose heresy he had 
never sympathized, although from his good opinion of the 
man, he had been long unable to believe that he meant so 
much ill, and had shrunk from proceedings which he feared 
might countenance the opposite error. But let Theodoret 
have been what he may, the fact that, at such a time, those 
very public statements of his remained uncensured and 
uncontradicted, is an additional warrant for our believing 
that on the Eucharist, at any rate, he did but express the 
known mind and practice of the holy Church throughout 
the world. 

Testimony of the Church in the Eighth Century. 1 09 

§ 9. Three centuries after Theodoret's time, in the course Chap. III. 
of the controversy on image-worship, we find each several 
section of the Church bearing its testimony — incidental 
indeed, but not the less trustworthy — to the doctrine of the 
Real Presence, and the consequent practice of worshipping 
Him who vouchsafes to be so marvellously present. The 
parties or sections alluded to are three : the Iconoclasts, 
who, as is well known, condemned not only the adoration of 
images and pictures, but all religious use of them ; the Image- 
worshippers, who enforced that adoration under anathema; 
and a third party, more moderate and apparently more 
orthodox than eitiier, who justified the use of images as a 
means of edification, but protested against adoring them. 
Each had its regular authentical expression in a formal 
synod : the Inconoclasts at Constantinople, a.d. 754, under 
the Emperor Constantino Copronymus ; the Iconolatrae 
(so to call them) at Niccca, in 787, under the patronage of 
Irene and Constantino her son ; and the moderate, or, as it 
may be called, the Gallican, at Frankfort, in the palace of 
Charlemagne, in 794. It is obvious that in the course of 
their discussions the question of Eucharistical Adoration was 
almost sure incidentally to arise; since that practice also, 
in one aspect of it, might seem to sanction the worship of 
sanctified creatures. 

Accordingly, we find the Iconoclasts arguing on it as fol- 
lows : — Having laid down as a principle in a former para- 
graph, " Where the Soul of Christ is, there also is His God- 
head ; and where the Body of Christ is, there also no less 
is His Godhead';" (which saying was allowed by their op- 
ponents as a great truth, and the use they proposed to make 
of it alone disavowed ;) they proceed to apply it to the Sa- 
crament of Holy Communion. 

"Let them be glad and rejoice, and speak out with all 
confidence, who frame, and yearn after, and venerate the 
true Image of Christ with an uncorrupt soul, and who offer 
it for salvation of soul and body ; — which Image our Priest 
and God (having unreservedly taken to Himself, of us, the 
lump out of which we are kneaded) did in His own Person 
' Harduin, Cone. iv. 364 C. 

110 Testimony of the Iconoclasts. 

Chap. Ill , deliver to His initiated, at the time of His voluntary Passion, 
for a most evident type and memoi'ial. For being about 
to yield Himself, of His own accord, to His memorable and 
life-giving death, He took the Bread and blessed it, and 
gave thanks and brake it, and distributing it said, 'Take ye, 
eat, for remission of sins : this is My Body.' Likewise also 
distributing the Cup He said, ' This is My Blood : this do in 
remembrance of Me :' as though no other kind or form were 
selected by Him in the Church under heaven, which should 
be capable of imaging forth His Incarnation. Behold, then, 
the Image of His life-giving Body, so richly conti'ived, and 
endowed with all honour. For what did the All-wise God 
devise herein ? Even to shew and unfold evidently to us 
men the mystery wrought out in the dispensation concern- 
ing Himself: that even as that which He took of us is 
simply matter of human substance altogether perfect, not 
having the lines of a distinct person with independent ex- 
istence, no additional person thrown as it were into the 
Divinity; so also He enjoined His Image to be offered in 
that matter which He selected, even the substance of bread, 
— not representing the form of a man, lest idolatry creep in 

''Wherefore, as Christ's natural Body is holy, having been 
taken into God", so plainly is His adopted Body also — that is. 
His holy Image, as being by grace taken into God through a 
certain sanctification. This, as we said, was the purpose of 
our Lord Christ : that as He deified the Flesh which He took, 
from that very union, with the sanctification which was His 
own by nature, so also the Bread of the Eucharist, being 
sanctified as a true Image of His natural Flesh by the coming 
of the Holy Ghost, He willed to become a Divine Body, not 
without the instrumentality of the Priest, who maketh the 
offering by transference from that which is common to that 
which is holy. 

" Once more, that natural Flesh of our Lord, animate and 
gifted with reason, was anointed in respect of His Godhead 
with the Holy Ghost. So also the divinely ordained Image 
of His Flesh, the Divine Bread, was filled with the Holy 

Testimony of other Sections of the Church. Ill 

Ghost, together with the Chalice of the life-giving Blood Chap. III , 
from His side. This then is revealed as the true Image of 
the dispensation of Christ our God coming in the flesh, as 
was aforesaid ; thus the true Framer and Quickener of our 
nature delivered it unto us with His own lips ''." 

Without assenting to all their statements and reasonings, 
thus much one may gather from them in corroboration of 
what has been said : that with S. Ambrose they applied the 
expression of S. Paul'', "The very Image of the Things," 
to the holy Eucharist ^ ; that they regarded the Bread after 
consecration as not the natural Body of Christ, but yet most 
truly His Body by some special dispensation ^; that they wor- 
shipped that Body in, or with, or under the Bread, because 
of the Godhead with which it is inseparably united*; that 
they could not worship the Bread, as such, — it would be mere 
idolatry, — and therefore Christ would not have His memorial 
formed into a likeness of Him; and that they considered 
all this as connected with the doctrine of the Incarnation 
in such sense, that worshipping Christ's Humanity under 
any other image, would cause confusion in that doctrine. 
Observe that these were the "Protestants" of the time — 
watching, as they thought, with a godly jealousy against 
everything that might look like exaggerated respect to the 
creature : yet how far do they go in enforcing the adoration 
which many good men now religiously shrink from ! 

* Harduin, Cone. iv. 368, 9. ovf/euS^ eiVJva rris (pvffiKris (rapKSs. 

* Heb. X. 1. Connect these sayings with the prin- 
J Calling it t^jv oAtjStj rod XpicXTOv eiple which they had previously laid 

(iK($fa. . . ws ovK &K\ov ilSovs ewiKex- down, "Oirov awixa, Xpiarov, iKtl Kol rj 

$fVTos Trap' avTov tu rfj im' ovpavbv, tj 6e6Trjs, — and the conclusion in the 

Tvirou, flKoviffai tV avrov aapKucriv text, I think, c^ui hardly be avoided. 

Swaixeirov . . . a&rri oZv Ajro5t'5et(CToi For ai|/eu5^j «<(cci(j'=" no untrue image 

i.y\i(vhy]s (Ikwv t^j fvadpKOv oIkovo- of a thing absent:" and to venerate 

fiias XpttTTov rov &(ov Tjfjioiiy. the Sacramentid Bread as an image of 

* &mr(p rh Karh (pvaif tov XpioroC Christ's present Body, is to all but 
aufia cLytuv, us OfoiQtv ovrws SrjKov Ka\ Nestorians a mode of worshipping 
rh Offffi, fiToi T) (Indiv aiirov ayla, ws Christ's Body through or under that 
iid Tivos ayiaff/xoi x'^P'tj Sfovfiiv-q . . . image. Indeed, the very gist of the 
jhv TTJj fvxapfTias Uproy, i>s iL\t>fvSri controversy seems to have been this 
flK6va TTJs (pvcriKTis aapKhs 5ta t^s tov —whether it was lawful to worship 
'Aylov Tlvtiifiaros iiri<potTr](Tfus a.yia^6- images with a worship passing through 
ixtvov,^ edov (Twna fiiS6Krjfff yivfadai. the image (so to speak) to the reality ; 

* fh<ppa.vei\Tw<jav . . . ot Trjv &\7)eri it being allowed that such worship 
XpiffTov^tUdva . . . (rffi6n(voi . . . . tV might be paid to the holy Eucharistic 
fiK6va, S\r]v i^aiptTov, fiyovv UpTov ov- symbols. 

<riay jhi/ t^s tvxciptiJTias 6{>tov, u)s 

112 Ancient Consent for Adoration. 

Chap. III. The Opposite party, wliicli proved the dominant one, ob- 
jected to the term Image as nnscriptural in its application 
to the Eucharist ; in which, however, they were incorrect, if 
S. Ambrose is right in his interpretation of Hebrews x. 
They allowed the word 'figures/ avTCrvira, but said it was 
only applied before consecration, — a most erroneous state- 
ment, corrected in the margin by the editors of the Coun- 
cils, both Roman and Greek ; from S. Cyril of Jerusalem, 
S. Gregory Nazianzen and others''. But these very mistakes 
being made in their eagerness to glorify the Sacrament as 
much as they could, it is needless to seek testimonies in 
favour of adoring the Inward Part of it from them. 

The Council of Frankfort, as is notorious, was very plain 
and express in its condemnation of image-worship. Their 
second canon is, " The question was mooted of the recent 
synod of the Greeks, holden at Constantinople, touching the 
worship of images; wherein it was set down, that such as 
would not pay service or worship to the images of the saints, 
as to the holy Trinity, should incur an anathema. Our holy 
Fathers above mentioned rejected altogether such adora- 
tion and service, and that with scorn, and unanimously con- 
demned it*'." And one of their reasons for rejecting it, 
alleged afterwards to Pope Adrian, was, — " It is great rash- 
ness and extreme absurdity to be minded to put the said 
images on a par with the Body and Blood of our Lord '^.^ 
Herein they adopt the argument of the Iconoclasts, Avhose 
decisions they had before them, embodied in those of Nicaea ; 
and shew that they regarded it as a matter of course to adore 
Christ's Body and Blood in the Eucharist, since otherwise 
the adoring of images would be no real intrusion on the 
rights of that Sacrament. 

§ 10. Thus we seem to have evidence sufficient that 
down to the beginning of the ninth century, i. e. through 
all the ages of comparatively unbroken unity in the Church, 
the Body and Blood of the Man Christ Jesus — of Him who 
is God and Man — was adored as present after consecration 
in the Eucharist ; i. e. Christ Himself was adored, as present 
by the Presence of His Body and Blood. Neither the de- 
'' Harduin, iv. 372 A. <= Ibid. iv. 904 D. •• Ibid. 791 D. 

Objection from the Silence of the Liturgies. 113 

pravers of the faith on the one hand, nor the maintainers of Chap. III. 
purity of worship on the other, ever seem to have found 
any difficulty in that point. Who can help concluding that 
it came down direct from the Apostles ? especially consider- 
ing what I will venture to call the strong presumption made 
out in favour of it from Holy Scripture and natural piety. 
It will have been seen that both S. Ambrose and S. Au- 
gustine use expressions and arguments which would be quite 
unwarrantable, unless they knew the practice to be a real 
apostolical tradition. S. Ambrose's "hodieque,'' and S. Au- 
gustine's " Nemo manducat, nisi qui prius adoraverit," would 
be neither of them honest sayings, were they not uttered 
under that conviction. And their arguments, grounded as 
they are on the two great and simple verities of the In- 
carnation and the Real Presence, are of course good for 
all times as well as for their own. 

Besides, it is hard to imagine how such a serious and 
awful innovation could have made its way into the most 
solemn and at the same time the most frequently repeated 
of all Church ordinances, without some notice or discussion 
at the time. Other questionable tenets and usages, such 
as purgatory, the worship of the Virgin, and of saints and 
images, and the papal supremacy, may be traced in Church 
history, coming on by degrees, and some of them not with- 
out much noisy discussion and conflict : in regard of each one 
of them a time may be certainly assigned, when it was no 
part of the necessary teaching of the Church. Not so in 
respect of this rite of Eucharistical Adoration, There is no- 
thing in early Church history or theology, any more than 
in Holy Scripture or in the creeds of the Church, to pre- 
vent our receiving in their full extent the statements of the 
fourth century concerning it. It is a case coming naturally 
and completely under S. Augustine's famous aphorism, "that 
whatsoever positive order the whole Church everywhere 
doth observe, the same it must needs have received from 
the very Apostles themselves, unless perhaps some general 
council were the authors of it '." 

§ 11, The only plausible objection, that I know of, to the 

• Hooker, Eccl, Pol, viii, 5. 3, quoting S. Aug. Ep. 108, c. 1. 

114 The Liturgies have few special Collects to our Lord : 

Chap. Ill, foregoing statement, arises from the omission of the subject 
in the primitive Liturgies, which are almost or altogether 
silent as to any worship of Christ's Body and Blood after 
consecration. We find in them neither any form of prayer 
addressed in special to His holy Humanity so present, nor 
any rubric enjoining adoration inward or outward. 

But with regard to the first, the omission of special col- 
lects to our Lord, that it does not negative adoration is 
demonstrated at once by the twenty-third canon of the 
Third Council of Carthage, a. d. 397^; at which council 
S. Augustine was present : and his express testimony to the 
universal custom of adoration has been here quoted at large. 
Yet he was a party to the following enactment : " Ut nemo 
in precibus vel Patrem pro Filio, vel Filium pro Patre no- 
minet. Et cum altari assistitur, semper ad Patrem dirigatur 
oratio. Et quicunque sibi preces aliunde describit, non eis 
utatur, nisi prius eas cum instructioribus fratribus contule- 
rit.'' A rule remarkable on many accounts : 

First, as a striking illustration of the great liberty allowed 
for variation of Liturgies in the several dioceses, or even in 
the several congregations ; since it implies, apparently, that 
every Bishop and Priest might adopt prayers from any quar- 
ter, taking good advice upon them. So much the more 
remarkable is the concurrence of all the Liturgies in so 
many material points. 

Secondly, we see what danger there was under such cir- 
cumstances of ill-advised language, unawares countenancing 
the very gravest of doctrinal errors ; such as confounding the 
Persons of the Trinity one with another, naming the Son 
for the Father, and the Father for the Son. 

And thirdly, (which is much to our present purpose,) there 
is a direct prohibition, for whatever reason, of special vocal 
prayer to our Lord, as also to the Holy Ghost, in the Com- 
munion Office. How is this to be accounted for? Perhaps 
by recollecting that the rationale of the Holy Eucharist is to 
be a sacrifice offered by the Son to the Father ; it is the 
transference for the time to earth of the great perpetual 
commemorative sacrifice in heaven ; and there might be 

f Harduin, i.963. 

because the Sacrifice is offered to the Father. 115 

danger of devout persons not considering this, and obscuring Chap. III. 
the simplicity of the priestly act by intermingling prayers 
to our Lord with those which are eminently and particularly 
offered by our Lord; He, our Melchisedec, being the true 
Consecrator, as well as the true Baptizer. 

It might seem as though this African rule were far from 
being invariably observed, — for in the Roman Canon itself, 
as Bishop Andrewes remarks &, there are four collects ad- 
dressed to our Lord ; and among the normal liturgies of 
the East, that of S. James has four'', S. Chrysostom three', 
S. Mark two only"^; the Persian family, as represented, ac- 
cording to Mr. Neale, by the Liturgy of Theodore the Inter- 
preter, as many'. In the Jacobite litui'gies, especially those 
of Egypt, there appear to be many more. In one, called 
after S. Gregory, the very prayer of consecration itself is 
addressed to our Lord. But this seems to be a remarkable 
exception ; aud one might almost imagine that the African 
canon above quoted, though many years earlier, was in- 
tended to guard against similar invocations, as obscuring 
the true doctrine, if not directly tending to error. The 
other addresses to Jesus Christ above referred to, in the 
several Anaphorae, (for I take no account here of the more 
distant preparation for the sacrifice,) are most of them 
private, for the use of the priests, or of each communicant j 
praying to be made worthy, or giving thanks after com- 
munion, or (as in S. Chrysostom) deprecating the forfeiture 
of the gift. As far as I see, there is no invocation of our 
Lord that may be well called public, or congregational, but 
the response of the people following the words of institution 
in S. James' and some other Oriental Liturgies. Will it 
be too much to say, that in spite of these exceptions, the 
clear mind of the Church in her Eucharistical offices has 
always been to offer the sacrifice directly and immediately 
to God the Father only ? Not as if we were ignorant how 
inseparable the Persons of the Blessed Trinity are, nor as 
if we were excluding the Most Holy Son and Spirit from 

« Minor Works, Ans. to Perron, p. ' Ibid. 127, 112, 148. 

50, Lib. of ATijrlo-Cath. Thcol. >> Ibid. 27, 32. 

i- p. 72, 74, 76, 79, (Neale's reprint, ' Neale, Introduction, 593, 613. 


116 The English Liturgy conformed to this Rule. 

Chap. III. beiug truly recipients of the Christian Sacrificej — which kind 
of error was once censured in the Eastern Church"' ; — but 
because Holy Scripture everywhere teaches, that it has 
pleased Him so to order the economy of our redemption, 
as that each Person shall have His own work therein, to 
which He is in a certain sense nearer than either of the 
other two : e. g. in the mystery of the Altar, (which in 
heaven is the mystery of Christ's Intercession,) the Holy 
Ghost prepares the Sacrifice, the Son offers it (being His 
own incarnate Self), and the Father receives it. And by 
Divine instinct, as it may seem, the holy Church from the 
beginning has been taught to arrange her liturgies in con- 
formity with this. 

§ 12. Among the rest, it is obvious to remark that our 
own reformed Liturgy does not contain any prayer or ad- 
dress to our Lord, until we come to the Gloria in excelsis 
at the end of it. All along, down to that moment, it is as if 
He, the true Melchisedec, were condescending to officiate 
among us as Priest, marvellously offering up Himself as a 
memorial of His death ; and where He begins, as it were, to 
re-ascend, then we begin to call on Him in prayer as well as 
praise. With S. John we see Him in the " Lamb standing 
as it had been slain,'' now taking His place in the midst of 
the throne •> ; and we salute and beseech Him accordingly ; 
as our King, to have mercy on us, and to receive our 
prayers in His own right ; as our Priest, to receive and 
present them with His own Eucharistical offering to the 
Father. And then we lose sight of Him (so to speak), as 
the Apostles did, behind the cloud of glory, where " He only 
with the Holy Ghost" is " most high in the glory of God the 
Father." He departs, but not without a blessing, which He 
leaves His earthly priest to pronounce in His Name. Ought 
not all this to be religiously accepted, as one of the many 
providential tokens that the doctrine of Eucharistical Sacrifice 
is not abandoned in our Liturgy ?- God forbid ! although by 
reason of certain deviations from the received language of 
early times, omission of some things, and transposition of 

" Neale, Introd. to Hist, of the Holy Eastern Church, i. 434. 
" Rev. V. 6. 

Adoration may be without saying Prayers. 117 

otiiers, the truth of the blessing is less distinctly taught than Chap. III. 
might have been wished. 

§ 13. The above would seem to be a sufficient reason why 
congregational prayers and collects formally addressed to our 
Lord should not in general have formed part of the Eucha- 
ristical services. But we are not hastily to conclude that He 
was not intended to be directly worshipped as there present. 
We have seen that S. Augustine, while discouraging verbal 
prayers addressed to Him, testifies nevertheless to the fact 
of His being universally then and there adored, and declares 
the duty of such adoration : — " We have found out in what 
sense such a Footstool of our Lord may be worshipped, and 
not only that we sin not in worshipping it, but that we sin 
in not worshipping it." 

For adoration is by no means limited, as some appear to 
imagine, to " the saying of prayers." It was observed of old, 
in answer to an Arian who would fain argue the inferiority 
of the Holy Ghost from the saying, " that the Spirit maketh 
intercession for us° :" — " To intercede or pray, is one thing 
— to adore, another. Whoever prays, asks, but not every one 
who adores, asks. Remember the custom of kings : they are 
commonly adored" with a civil kind of worship, " and not 
asked for anything. Sometimes they are asked without being 
adored." Religious adoration is of the heart, and not of the 
lips only ; it is practised in praise and thanksgiving, as well 
as in prayer; we adore as often as we approach God in any 
act of divine faith, hope, or love, with or without any verbal 
or bodily expression : neither, among postures, is it limited 
to actual prostration ; kneeling, or standing with inclina- 
tion of the body, {venerabiliter curvi p,) was always accepted 
in most ancient, times as a competent attitude of outward 

§ 14. The absence, then, of special prayer to our Lord 
sacramentally present in the Eucharist proves nothing 
against His being adored there ; although it is not without 
significance as an indication of the sacrificial import of that 
ordinance. But what shall we say to the deficiency of 

° S, Aug. cont. Maxim. Arian. i. 9. 
•" Ep. of [Pseudo] Anastasius, ap. Cone. Labbe, cd. Coleti, t. ii. 1429. 

118 Rubi'ical Injunctions ; wliy rarely found : 

Chap. III. rubrics? True it is that the extant copies of ancient litur- 
gies are not without special instances sometimes of express 
direction to adore, sometimes of what is unmeaning without 
adoration : as in the Mozarabic, after the consecration, and 
before the Nicene Creed, " the priest elevates the Body of 
Christ, that it may be seen by the people "J ;" and the Creed 
itself is evidently repeated in the way of adoration. In 
those of the Tlierosolymitan family, the rubric and prayer of 
S. Chrysostom run thus'" : 

After the consecration and offering, the priest prays se- 
cretly : " Regard, O Lord Jesus Christ our God, out of Thy 
holy dwelling-place, and from the throne of the glory of 
Thy kingdom, and come to sanctify us, Thou that sittest on 
high with the Father, and art here invisibly with us, and 
vouchsafe with Thy mighty hand to impart unto us of Thine 
immaculate Body and precious Blood, and through us to all 
Thy people. Then the priest adores, and the deacon in his 
place, saying secretly thrice, God be merciful to me a sin- 
ner. And the people likewise all reverently adore. And when 
the deacon seeth the priest stretching out his hands, and 
taking hold of the holy bread in order to make the holy 
elevation, he says aloud. Let us attend. And the priest : 
Holy things for holy persons. The choir: There is One 
Holy, One Lord Jesus Christ, to the glory of God the 
Father. Amen." 

The corresponding portion of S. James' Liturgy runs thus^ : 
— " The priest secretly : Holy Lord, who restest in the holy, 
hallow us by the word of Thy grace, and by the visita- 
tion of Thy all-Holy Spirit ; for Thou hast said, O Lord, Be 
ye holy, for I am holy. Lord, our God, incomprehensible 
Word of God, consubstantial, coeternal, indivisible, with the 
Father and the Holy Ghost, receive the pure hymn in Thy 
holy and spotless Sacrifice, with the Cherubim and Seraphim, 
and from me a sinner; crying and saying, [then he elevates 
the gifts, and saith,) Holy things for holy persons. People : 
One Holy, one Lord Jesus Christ, in the glory of God the 
Father, to Whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen." 

1 Neale, Tntrod. to Hist, of Eastern Chxirch, p. 589. 
Ibid. 630—38 ; S. Chrys., t. vi. 1001. ed. Sav. • Ncale, ubi supr. 635, 639. 

hardly needed in this case. 119 

And so in S. Mark's, and in the other normal litar- Chap. Iir. 
gies. . 

Who can doubt that where the rubric is wanting in 
the MSS. the rite was nevertheless remembered and prac- 
tised? the case being one to which the remark of the 
learned Renaudot is eminently applicable : " To what end 
write in the Office-books all the points which the priests 
and deacons were learning every day by practice in their 
ministry ? Many directories of later ages, later than the 
time to which the Protestants themselves refer the ori- 
gin of adoration, contain not a single line on the subject. 
And so it was in the Eastern Churches, where it was com- 
paratively late before any rules for the administration of the 
Sacraments were set down in writing, and the MSS. con- 
sisted of prayers only '." To the Eucharist, more especially, 
this saying will apply, because of the peculiar reverence 
which induced the Christians of the first ages, living so 
much as they did among the heathen, to veil the sacred 
mysteries from the knowledge of all but communicants. So 
that even in the time of S. Basil, as is notorious, the very 
words of consecration were accounted among unwritten tra- 
ditions". And we know how commonly, in unauthorized 
and popular reprints of our own Prayer-book, the rubrics 
are apt to drop out. 

§ 15. Putting all this together, there is nothing in the 
silence of the Liturgies, so far as they are silent, to outweigh 
the distinct affirmation of so many competent witnesses, 
backed as they are by intrinsic probability, that the Bread 
and Wine being once consecrated, the Body and Blood were 
believed to be present as the Inward Part of the Sacrament, 
and then and there to be adored ; and that a certain moment 
in the celebration was appointed in each Liturgy, sometimes 
by rubric, oftener by unwritten custom, for such adoration to 
take place. One very usual time, perhaps the most usual, 
for this ceremony, was just before the priest communicated, 
when, having completed the preparation of the holy ele- 
ments for distribution, he held up one portion of them, to 
signify to the people that all was ready ; at the same time 

» Liturg. Oriental, t. i. 270. " De Spiritu Saiicto, c. 27. 

120 The Practice universal ; the Manner diverse. 

CnAP. Ill, inviting and cautioning them by the words, " Holy things to 
holy persons." In other cases, as in the Roman Liturgy, the 
signification takes place immediately after consecration. In 
our own, the same end is answered by the provision in the 
rubric, that the bread must be broken, and the cup taken 
into the priest's hands, before the people ; besides that there 
is less occasion for it as a notice, when the Sacrament is 
ministered in a tongue " understanded of the people." 

§ 16. It is a question seriously to be asked. Can any one 
who believes in the Real Presence help adoring, at least in- 
wardly, when he sees or hears either of these signals, or any 
other equivalent to them. Such an one would need no ru- 
bric ; aud accordingly we find that even in the Canon of the 
Roman Mass, though the celebrant is directed to adore, no 
such injunction is given to the communicants or assistants. 
It is taken for granted, as part of the unwritten mind of 
the Church. And the same observation will apply to those 
ancient Liturgies which prescribe nothing on the subject, and 
perhaps, as we shall see by and by, to our own. 

To me this seems to harmonize beautifully with the tenor 
of the old services, and of all that are in unison with them, — 
the English not the least ; — with the fact that the very Creed 
for a long period was not allowed to be put in writing, and so 
it came to pass that every diocese almost had its own creed, 
its own wording for the same Articles of belief; with the 
similar fact as to Liturgies aud Church offices; with many 
also of the great social rules and rules of discipline ; with the 
many meanings, or shades of meaning, assigned to the same 
words of Scripture, under the sanction of the New Testament 
itself, and its way of interpreting the Old, and using the 
LXX. version. In all these things, taking all Christendom 
over from the beginning, there is an endless variety in detail, 
presupposing a perfect unity in principle, such as one might 
expect in His work, Who made the visible and material world 
so various, yet so uniform. And thus, as well as by its free- 
ing us from sin, is the Gospel eminently a law of liberty. So 
much the more striking is it, when in opinions, or interpre- 
tations, or formulae, or usages, which at first appear substan- 
tially diverse, or even inconsistent, we detect a common ele- 

Providential Course of Doctrine touching the Eucharist. 121 

ment animating all, which binds and reconciles all together. Chap. IV. 
Such is the doctrine of the Real Objective Presence in re- 
spect of everything in the Eucharistic oflQices and traditions, 
and eminently in respect of the practice of Adoration. 



§ 1. Alas ! that this great, and blessed, and simple truth 
should have been so marred in its visible effect, and too often, 
we may fear, in its intended work on men's souls, by the 
restless curiosity of mere investigators, or the mistaken policy 
of Church governors; the one speculating, the other de- 
fining, on this and other subjects, beyond the lines drawn by 
Holy Scripture and sacred Antiquity. But this process, be 
it observed, kept time in a manner with the steps of the un- 
happy division which the great Enemy was then working out 
between the Eastern and Western portions of the Church. 
And so it has come to pass, that for none of the present cor- 
ruptions, however widely diffused, can it be truly said that 
there was at any time even a fair semblance of oecumenical 

There is no need here to go into the history of Transub- 
stantiation ; the introduction of which, erroneously supposed 
the only alternative with an indevout rationalism, has proved 
undoubtedly, if not the origin, at least the main aggravation 
of all our present difficulties on the subject of Holy Commu- 
nion. But it may be instructive to remark the difference be- 
tween the course of synodical decision in the Western Church 
on this point, and the manner in which the full doctrine of 
the Incarnation had been affirmed by the great Councils iu 
opposition to the conflicting heresies of the fifth century. The 
undivided Church in the time of Ephesus and Chalcedon was 
equally on its guard against Nestorius denying the unity of 
our Lord's Person, and Eutyches denying the truth of Ilis 
abiding human Nature : the Scripture and the holy Fathers, it 

122 The Roman View damages proper Adoration : 

CHAr. IV. was found and authoritatively declared, were as express and 
earnest on the one point as on the other. Between the two, 
the way was marked out without swerving to the right hand 
or to the left, and all Christendom accepted their witness, 
and has repeated it all along; with how great a blessing, 
none may yet know. Who can say how much of the unity 
in belief, which, blessed be God, as yet prevails among us in 
spite of so many fretful hearts and undisciplined minds, is 
due to those solemn assemblies, under the guidance of God's 
good Spirit? 

So it has fared with the doctrine of the Incarnation itself; 
but it has been far otherwise with the doctrine of the Eucha- 
rist, — the extension, as it hfis been often called, of the Incar- 
nation, and corresponding to it by a very remarkable ana- 
logy. Instead of maintaining with the Fathers the full and 
true co-existence of both parts of the Sacrament, the Western 
Church, from about the time of the great schism, has allowed 
and cherished, and finally enforced by anathema, a notion, 
apparently corresponding to Eutychianism, that the earthly 
and inferior part is quite swallowed up of the higher, and 
ceases to be. 

§ 2. Let it be granted that this view — as an English 
Churchman, I must be allowed to call it this error — unlike 
the opposite one, which would make the Sacrament a shadow, 
" destitute, empty, and void of Christ," has nothing in it that 
seems immediately profane, and shocking to a religious mind ; 
nay, more, that it is fully consistent with the very highest 
contemplations and devoutest breathings of saintly love, — as 
who can doubt, that has only heard the names of Thomas 
a Kempis, S. Bernard, S. Anselm, and a hundred others ? 
Yet still, if it be an error, a one-sided formula, a half-truth, 
on so grave a point of Christian doctrine, it must be an ex- 
ceeding calamity for any portion of the Church to have com- 
mitted itself to it ; and in process of time it will be sure, one 
way or another, to betray itself by the appropriate results of 
error : the tree will be known by its fruits. And Transub- 
stantiation, like certain views which have found more of a 
home among ourselves, the views (e. g.) of Calvin or of Wes- 
ley, however it may have commended itself to many, in their 

tempting all sorts to theorize in their Worship. 123 

deep longing to draw as near as possible to their Saviour, Chap. IV. 
must be judged, on a wide view of Church history, and look- 
ing to the average sort of believers, to have borne on the 
whole very evil fruit, both where it is received and where it 
is not. \Yithin the Roman obedience it has been a scandal 
to the simpler sort by " giving occasion to many super- 
stitions," it being so exceedingly hard for them to separate it 
from a base and carnal idea of the Holy Sacrament. Among 
us, and every where in the West apart from Rome, it has 
proved a still greater scandal ; it is the one chief reason of 
the prejudice which in these later ages has prevailed, and is 
prevailing (God grant it may not always prevail), against the 
true and primitive doctrine, which is mistaken for it, like 
Jehoshaphat in Ahab's robes. 

§ 3. It is obvious how this prejudice must tell against the 
rite of adoration especially. Before the time of Paschasius, 
when it was said, as by S. Augustine or S. Cyril, " the Body of 
Christ in the Sacrament is to be worshipped," the faithful had 
been plainly taught that not the outward sign was meant, but 
that of which the bread was the veil. They no more thought 
of adoring the bread, as such, than S. Mary Magdalen and 
the Apostles thought of adoring our Lord's garments, when 
He appeared to them after His resurrection. They worship- 
ped His Divine Person present by the presence of His glori- 
fied Humanity : there was no call or need — if they were de- 
vout, there was neither time nor wish — to think at all of the 
manner of the Presence, the earthly substances by which He 
was pleased to veil Himself. " They had at that time a sea 
of comfort and joy to wade in, and we by that which they 
did are taught that this heavenly food is given for the satis- 
fying of our empty souls, and not for the exercising of our 
curious and subtle wits." But the teaching of Transub- 
stantiation, if realized at the time, forces men to think of the 
manner of the Presence, and, to subtle minds, must prove so 
far a hindrance to devotion, if not a temptation to unbelief. 
So that even among those who most firmly believed it, the 
refuge of loving hearts has always been to turn away from 
it as a topic of Eucharistical meditation, and revert uncon- 
sciously to the simpler faith of the times before such points 

124 An Instance of Harm by over-explaining. 

Chap. IV. had been discussed; as we see, (for example,) in the last 
book of Thomas a Kempis. And it has been just the same 
all along on the other side, with those who feel it a mat- 
ter of conscience to be denying or doubting that mode of 
Presence. They have hard work to abstain from thinking 
of their denials and doubtings, when they most wish simply 
to receive the blessing. Thus Hooker himself, after depre- 
cating " the exercise of our curious and subtile wits" on the 
holy Eucharist, propounds in the very next paragraph an 
explanation of the words of institution, which, whether it be 
more or less correct than the Roman, is surely not less 
" curious" or scholastic : 

" My Body, the Communion of My Body ; My Blood, the 
Communion of My Blood. Is there any thing more expedite, 
clear, and easy, than that, as Christ is termed our life be- 
cause through Him we obtain life, so the parts of this Sa- 
crament are His Body and Blood, for that they are so to 
us, who receiving them, receive that by them which they 
are termed ? The Bread and Cup are His Body and Blood, 
because they are causes instrumental upon the receipt 
whereof the participation of His Body and Blood ensueth. 
For that which produceth any certain effect is not vainly 
nor improperly said to be that very effect whereunto 
it tendeth. Every cause is in the effect which groweth 
from it." 

The truth is, if one may venture to say it of one so wise, 
holy, and venerable, that on this subject, as on the Apo- 
stolical Succession, and some others. Hooker was biassed by 
his respect for Calvin and some of his school, in whose 
opinions he had been educated, and by sympathy with the 
most suffering portion of the foreign Reformers, so as in- 
stinctively and unconsciously to hide his eyes from the un- 
questionable consent of antiquity, and to make allowances 
which, logically carried out, would lead to conclusions such 
as the ancient Church never could have endured. In this 
part of his treatise especially, many a thoughtful reader 
has doubtless wondered, not without some disappointment, 
•• at the manner in which he winds up his enunciation of the 

doctrine of the Eucharist, after fearlessly pouring himself 

Hooker's Words to be taken in Spirit, not in Letter. 125 

out in the most glowing words and most transcendental Chap. IV. 
thoughts of the deepest and most eloquent of the Fathers : — 
"The Real Presence of Christ's most blessed Body and Blood 
is not therefore to be sought for in the Sacrament, but in 
the worthy receiver of the Sacrament." Why ? not because 
we are so warned by consent of the ancient Church ; not 
because the words of Holy Scripture are irreconcilable with 
such an opinion; but because, as it may seem to us, all the 
purposes of the lioly Eucharist may be answered without 
supposing an objective Presence; an argument which, be- 
sides other difficulties, obviously assumes that we know a 
priori all the purposes of the holy Eucharist. At the same 
time, it should be carefully observed that he does not enforce 
this view as necessary, nor say anything exclusive against 
the Lutherans, but only that " they ought not to stand in it 
as in a matter of faith, nor to make so high accompt of it." 
And then how strikingly beautiful is the conclusion to which, 
after all, he recurs, his mind floating upward again to its 
congenial element of love ! and how aptly do his words 
shadow forth the impression which would be left on a duti- 
ful heart by the simple consideration of what Holy Scripture 
and ancient authors wrote of the tenet which he shrank 
from — the Real Objective Presence in Sacrifice as well as in 
Sacrament, — before the unhappy refinement of Transubstan- 
tiation came in ! — "Where God Himself doth speak those 
things, which either for height and sublimity of matter, or 
else for sccresy of performance, we are not able to reach 
unto, as we may be ignorant without danger, so it can be no 
disgrace to confess we are ignorant. Such as love piety will 
as much as in them lieth know all things that God com- 
maudeth, but especially the duties of service which they owe 
to God. As for His dark and hidden works, they prefer, as 
becomcth them in such cases, simplicity of faith before that 
knowledge, which curiously sifting what it should adore, and 
disputing too boldly of that which the wit of man cannot 
search, chillcth for the most part all warmth of zeal, and 
bringeth soundness of belief many times into great hazard." 
It cannot surely be wrong to wish that, in this spirit, the 
spirit of holy humility, all priests may speak, and all Chris- 

126 Fear of Idolatry ; how to be obviated : 

Chap. IV. tians hear, the holy words, "This is My Body; this is My 
Blood ;" and if they so speak and hear, how can they help 
inwardly adoring, even at the very time of consecration ? 
seeing that He does not say, " This will to you and in you 
be My Body;" — that is the gloss, not the text; — but He 
says simply and positively, "This is My Body;" and again, 
" This IS My Blood." 

§ 4. But you fear to surrender yourself to this impulse — 
you fear to adore before you eat — lest you should be un- 
awares committing yourself to a kind of idolatry, in wor- 
shipping Bread and Wine ; or to a gross material conceit, 
like that which our Lord reproved in the multitude at Caper- 
naum ; as though, if the sight were not miraculously with- 
held, they would behold Him corporally in His human form 
and features ; and how then could they dare partake of Him ? 
We have too much reason to beheve that the latter of these 
errors has been, perhaps is still, not uncommon among the 
uneducated in neighbouring countries ; and as to the former, 
it is involved in the very notion of Transubstantiation, sup- 
posing that notion untrue. To worship the outward part of 
the Sacrament must, of course, (to use a school distinction,) 
be material idolatry in their eyes who have learned and be- 
lieve that it is true Bread and Wine; although in those 
whose faith teaches them that there is really no outward 
part, that the holy Body and Blood are alone present, such 
worship can hardly hefo7'mal idolatry, nor in any degree (we 
may hope) incur the guilt thereof. No wonder, however, 
if the mind, haunted by this idea, shrink more or less from 
the thought of any worship in the Eucharist. And yet, when 
we reflect on it in earnest, how can the heart help wor- 
shipping? The remedy must be, to place yourself, by God's 
help, with courageous faith, in the same posture of mind 
with the ancient undivided Church before these theories 
were invented; simply to adore, from simple conviction of 
Christ's presence. For many generations all good Chris- 
tians did so without fear or scruple : not because they were 
unaware of the possibility of these later errors, for they were 
distinctly warned against them by their teachers ; Theodoret, 
as against Transubstantiation, declaring that " the mystical 

not by forbidding nil adoration. 127 

symbols in no wise depart from their proper nature ; for Chap. IV. 
they remain in their former substance, and figure, and kind, 
and are visible and tangible, just as they were before";" 
S. Augustine, as against Carnal Presence, pointing to our 
Lord's cautionary words : " When thou adorest Him, lest thy 
mind linger in the flesh and thou fail to be quickened by 
the Spirit, ' It is the Spirit,^ saith He, * that quickeneth, the 
flesh profiteth nothing.' . . . Some of His disciples . . . took 
foolishly what He had said ; they had carnal thoughts of it, 
and imagined that our Lord was to separate certain par- 
ticles from His own Body, to give unto them But the 

Twelve having remained, He instructed them, and said unto 
them, 'The words that I speak unto you are spirit and 
life.' Understand what I have said to you spiritually; it 
is not this Body which you see, that you are to eat, nor to 
drink that Blood which they will shed who shall crucify Me. 
It is a certain Sacrament which I have entrusted to you ; 
spiritually understood it will give you life. Though it must 
needs be visibly celebrated, it is meet to be thought of as 
something invisible y." 

Theodoret and S. Augustine, be it observed, are two of the 
most express witnesses to the adoration of Christ's Body in 
the Eucharist. 

§ 5. It will be said — it has been said again and again; 
it was the primary argunaent of those who were accounted 
" sober Churchmen" a century ago — that it might be very well 
for the primitive Christians to speak such language as they 
did, and practise such ceremonies, but that the mischiefs in 
which that course eventually issued were a providential warn- 
ing to us not to tread in their steps. And no doubt there 
are cases to which this topic may and ought to be applied. 
But they must be cases of detail, not of principle. The 
Church must look well to it, that in no instance the opinion 
or rite surrendered be such, as that the loss of it shall 
materially damage any one of the great truths or duties com- 
mitted to her charge. To take instances from the ritual of 
the Eucharist itself: the suppression of the apostolical feasts 
of charity, or, in later times, of the kiss of peace, no one, 

» Eraniates, Dial, ii., ed. Schnlze, t. iv. p. 126. ^ In Ps. 98 [99], § 9. 

128 The "Admonition" after the English Liturgy, 

Chap. IV, under the circumstances, would think of deprecating. But 
it is far otherwise when we are dealing with such great fun- 
damental matters as the Real Presence, and adoration con- 
sequent upon it. The doctrine, if revealed at all, is revealed 
for ever; the homage, if due at first, must be due always: 
it cannot be innocently suspended or done away. For the 
observation of Bishop Butler on the worship of the Second 
and Third Persons of the Most Holy Trinity — in what sense it 
is a moral duty — may be applied with much seeming reason 
to this case. " The w^orship," he may be imderstood to say, 
" the internal worship itself," before defined to be *' the re- 
ligious regards of reverence, honour, love, trust, gratitude, 
fear, hope," to Christ present in the holy Eucharist, " are no 
farther matter of pure revealed command, than as the fact 
of" that Presence "is matter of pure revelation; for the fact 
being known, the obligations to such inward worship are 
obligations of reason arising out of the fact itself ^" 

Should abuses then occur, they must be met by explana- 
tion; but far be it from the Church of God to permit any 
abuse of man to take away the use of His merciful gifts. 
That would be simply lending ourselves to the purposes of 
the crafty One who prompted the abuse. To him it is all 
one, if he can but turn you away from Christ, whether he do 
so by unauthorized veneration and worship, or by unloving 
and faithless fear of that whicli is authorized. Just as in the 
period of the great fficuraenieal Councils, he cared not to 
make men Nestorians rather than Eutychians. His single 
point was to disturb, at all events, their faith in our Lord's 
Incarnation. And how did undivided Christendom meet him ? 
By simply and steadfastly abiding in the old ways. Cou- 
rageous in their charity, and charitable in their courage, they 
held fast the whole truth, only guarding it on the right hand 
and on the left by needful and considerate explanations; 
yet not they, "but the grace of God which was with them." 
§ 6. To what extent that grace may have been forfeited 
and withdrawn, by reason of the manifold sins and divisions 
of God's people in the following ages, we can but surmise 
with fear and trembling. But we of the reformed Church 

' Anal., p. ii. c. 1. Works, Oxf. 1807, vol. i. p. 212. 

rightly taken, commands Adoration. 129 

of England are most surely bound by a deep debt of gra- Chap. IV. 
titude to Him, who in most critical times so overruled the 
course of religious change in this country, as to preserve us 
in many signal instances from most imminent peril of giving 
up something essential for dread of accidental error. One of 
these instances, if I take it aright, is the matter of adora- 
tion in the Eucharist. 

For what in very deed is the drift of the Admonition at 
the end of our Liturgy, so often quoted as forbidding all 
adoration? Take the words in their literal and grammatical 
sense : " It is ordained in this Office for the Administration 
of the Lord's Supper, that the communicants should receive 
the same kneeling ; (which order is well meant, for a signifi- 
cation of our humble and grateful acknowledgment of the 
benefits of Christ therein given to all worthy receivers, and 
for the avoiding of such profanation and disorder in the 
Holy Communion, as might otherwise ensue)." 

Kneeling, in a church, and in divine worship, is a posture 
of adoration — one of the three recognised postures; and 
where it is especially prescribed, some especial adoration 
must be intended. To whom ? and for what ? The words 
themselves of the protestation answer the latter question. 
We kneel in receiving " for a signification of our hum- 
ble and grateful acknowledgment of the benefits of Christ 
therein given to all worthy receivers." 

The grammar of this may be a little uncertain ; i. e. it 
does not quite clearly appear whether Christ Himself, or 
His benefits, are said to be given in the Sacrament. But 
in meaning and effect the phrases are plainly equivalent. 
Coming worthily, we are therein " partakers of Christ," — 
of Christ present in His human nature by the presence of 
His Body and Blood, — a Presence hidden from us, but cer- 
tified by the consecrated bread and wine which we do see. 
All who believe this — and this surely is no more than the 
Catechism plainly teaches us all, — must they not of course 
feel, that in kneeling down to receive the Holy Communion, 
they are in fact kneeling to Him who is come to give Him- 
self to them ; kneeling to His Person, to His human na- 
ture, to His Body and Blood; as truly, verily, and indeed, 


130 Drift of the rule, To 7'eceive hneeling. 

Chap. IV. as if they had been kneehng on Calvary itself, at the foot Oi 
the real Cross ? 

And who shall dare to come and tell them that in so 
feeling, so bowing before that Presence, in the most perfect 
homage their hearts can attain to, they are going beyond 
the rule of "humble and grateful acknowledgment of the 
benefits of Christ, therein given to all worthy receivers?" 
The real question is, what is the benefit received? If it 
be Christ Himself, not His grace and help only, surely 
"humble and grateful acknowledgment of the benefits of. 
Christ" cannot mean less than adoration. 

I must take leave then to say, that granting the doc- 
trine of the Real Objective Presence, Adoration is not only 
permitted, but enjoined by the Church of England in her 
Prayer-book. Those who would prove that she prohibits the 
one, must first make out that she denies the other; which 
they can never do as long as her Catechism and her Com- 
munion-office remain. 

§ 7. But now mark how wisely and charitably, guided, uo 
doubt, by God's good providence, our Anglican Church, in 
asserting for her children the full right and duty of simple 
and primitive worship, disavowed on their behalf errors which 
experience had shewn were likely to be laid to their charge, 
and provided them also with a ritual rule, which would guard 
them from seeming to fall either into those errors or the 
contrary. The rule is most simple, yet most efl'ective ; it is 
just this, — that whereas in the Church generally great free- 
dom has been allowed to communicants to adore in what 
posture they would; standing generally, at least on festivals, 
in the first ages, afterwards for the most part kneeling, but 
with permission to those who felt such an impulse, to pros- 
trate themselves in the mysterious Presence ; — this liberty is 
now so far curtailed among us, that we are all (if health allow) 
bound to receive kneeling ; which, being on the one hand 
a posture of adoration, answers the purpose of a " humble 
and grateful acknowledgment ;" on the other hand, it avoids 
the semblance of that worship which to most- men's fancy 
had unhappily come to imply belief in Trausubstantiation. It 
also guards against a certain " profanation and disorder," not 

Doctrinal Import of the Rite very serious. 131 

of course intentional, but sure to occur, where some kneel Chap. IV. 
and others fall prostrate; as well as against the worse pro- 
fanation of sitting, or using other careless postures, accord- 
ing to the custom of those Christians who have a super- 
stitious fear of the Real Presence. 

Nay, and there is something to be said of it yet more 
serious, — so serious, that I will repeat it, though it has been 
mentioned above. What Hooker writes of the customs of 
standing up when the Gospel is read, and of bowing at 
the Name of Jesus, seems even more applicable to the rite 
of adoration in the Holy Communion; "Against infidels, 
Jews, Arians," — he might have added, Nestorians — " who 
derogate from the honour of Jesus Christ, such ceremonies 
are most profitable.^^ And accordingly, "it is observed by 
the Polish Church in their ' Consensus,' that * the men who 
lapsed there into the Arian heresy were all such as addicted 
themselves to the posture of sitting at the Communion «.' " 

And no wonder ; for in refusing to adore on that occa- 
sion, (supposing them to know what they did,) they had be- 
trayed themselves at least to be very imperfect believers ; 
there being no outward act which does so entirely gather 
up, as it were, the whole Catholic faith in one, and declare it 
before the eyes of men, as receiving the holy Eucharist with 
a gesture of adoration. This any one may easily under- 
stand, who will just go through in his mind the several arti- 
cles of that faith, and pause to consider how each one is sym- 
bolized in, or associated with, the Great Sacramental llite. 
For ins'ance : by receiving His creatures of Bread and Wine, 
we acknowledge Him (as S.Irenajus argues) Creator of heaven 
and earth, against all sorts of Manicheans : receiving Christ's 
Body is confessing His Incarnation ; and adoring it. His 
Divinity ; it is the memorial of His death, and the partici- 
pation of that Sacrifice which supposes Him raised and as- 
cended into heaven ; it is obeying His command, so to shew 
forth His death till He come ; it is drinking " into one 
Spirit;" it is partaking of that "one Bread" which makes 
us " one Body," the Holy Catholic Church ; it is " the 
Communion of Saints;" it is the Blood shed "for the re- 

• L'Estrnnge, Alliance of Divine Offices, c. vii. p. 323. 
K 2 

132 Drift of the Church's cautionary Words. 

CiiAP. IV. mission of sins ;" it is the last Adam coming to be in us a 
quickening spirit, to seal us for " the resurrection of the 
body, and the life everlasting." 

§ 8. For reasons such as these, as we may well imagine, 
the Church of England in 1661 declined either to abolish 
or to leave optional the rite of kneeling to receive the holy 
Eucharist, but rather desired to retain it with cautionary 
words. And the cautionary words are evidently intended 
not so much for the communicants themselves, as for others 
who might be inclined to misinterpret the ceremony. The 
framers of them clearly indicate that they would have been 
best pleased simply to leave those committed to their charge 
to follow the dictates of natural piety, which, of course, 
would lead them to adore. But knowing the misconstruc- 
tions which are abroad, they charitably protest " that thereby 
no adoration is intended, or ought to be done, either unto 
the Sacramental Bread or Wine there bodily received, or 
unto any corporal Presence of Christ's natural Flesh and 
Blood." This is not the language of persons intending to 
negative all idea of any adoration whatever in the Eucharist. 
Had such been the mind of the Reformers, it was easy for 
them to speak it out ; they might simply have said, " No 
adoration is intended unto the Sacrament, or either part of 
it." But what they have really said amounts to this : We 
not only permit, but enjoin, all communicants to worship 
Christ present by the peculiar mystery of the Sacrament; and 
all objectors are desired to take notice that this implies nei- 
ther Transubstantiation, nor any sort of natural and local 
presence. For as to Transubstantiation, " the Sacramental 
Bread and Wine remain still in their very natural sub- 
stances, and therefore may not be adored ; (for that were 
idolatry, to be abhorred of all faithful Christians)." And 
as to material Presence, "the natural Body and Blood of 
our Saviour Christ are in heaven, and not here ; it being 
against the truth of Christ's natural Body to be at one time 
in more places than one." That Body which was seen by 
S. Stephen, S. Paul, and S. John, " is in heaven, and not 
here." As a true natural Body, it is one, and it has its own 
dimensions and outline, whereby it was recognised by those 

Origin of the Admonition in King Edwara's time. 133 

blessed disciples ; and in respect of that form (to use the Chap, iv. 
words of Aquinas), "the Body of Christ is not but in one 
place only, i. e. in heaven ''." 

Tiiese two errors then are excluded, viz. such a change 
in the Bread and Wine as would destroy the Sacrament, 
by annihilating its outward part; and such a " diffusion •= " 
of the Lord's Body into all places as would make it cease 
to be His own true natural Body. But no kind nor degree 
of worship, as towards the inward part of the Sacrament, 
apart from those errors, is in any degree censured or for- 
bidden ; on the contrary, such worship is, as we have seen, 
implicitly commanded in the preamble of the Admonition. 
It is as if the Church should say, " You see me and my chil- 
dren adoring, — of course we must do so, since we know 
and believe that here are verily and indeed present the 
Body and Blood of the Lord, to be taken and received by 
the faithful ; but you arie not therefore to tax us with this 
or that human interpretation, which we hereby renounce." 
Is this unduly straining the expressions of the protestation ? 
I think not, for obvious and well-known reasons. 

§ 9. First, the significant change in the words of the 
document, — the history of which appears to be as follows. 
In the beginning of the second year of Edw. VI., March 8, 
1548, a "Communion-book" was issued, pending the com- 
plete revision of Church Offices, which was known to be 
going on; in which book the rubric at the time of receiv- 
ing is, " Then shall the priest rise, the people still reve- 
rently kneeling**." 

In the end of the second year, or beginning of the third, 
the first Prayer-book became law : in the Communion-office 
of which no direction for the posture was given ; but in " cer- 
tain notes" at the end of the book we read, "As touching 
kneeling, crossing, holding up of hands, knocking upon the 
breast, and other gestures ; they may be used or left as every 
man's devotion servcth, without blame"." 

It would appear that this licence tended, on the whole, 
to irreverence : it could hardly be otherwise, seeing that 

•• iv. d. 10, 1. ad 5, t. xii. 193. ^ Cardwell.Two Liturgies, &c p. 431. 

<= Soo Uookor, Eccl. Pol., V. Iv. G. • Ibid., 397. 

134 The Admonition not authorized 

Chap. IV. before it was granted, proclamations and acts of parliament 
to check profane talking about Holy Communion had been 
thought necessary by King Edward's Bishops and coun- 
cillors, and in 1553 especially, encouragement had been 
given to Alasco, and other earnest importers of low Zuing- 
lianism. From incidental sayings here and there in Strype, 
we may imagine to what lengths the evil had gone : and it 
may have been the apprehension of it, joined probably to 
the influence of Ridley, which caused the revisers of 1552 
positively to enjoin reception in a kneeling posture ; though 
they could not but be well aware, what fierce and lasting 
opposition that rubric was likely to encounter. Puritanism 
was too evidently in the atmosphere for such discerning 
watchers to be ignorant of it, and by this we may perceive 
how serious a principle they judged to be involved in the 
step they were taking. 

The new Prayer-book, thus enjoining, as I should say, 
adoration of that which is unseen in the Sacrament, and so, 
if Strype speak truly, interpreted by many, came into use by 
act of Parliament on All Saints' Day, 1552 ^ " But because 
the posture of kneeling was excepted against by some, and 
the words used by the Priest to the communicant at the re- 
ception of the Bread gave scruple, as though the adoration 
of the Host were intended ; therefore, to take off this, and 
to declare the contrary to be the doctrine of this Church, 
October 27, a letter was sent from the Council to the Lord 
Chancellor, to cause to be joined to the Book of Common 
Prayer, lately set forth, a declaration signed by the King, 
touching the kneeling at the receiving of the Communion." 

It is remarkable, and may serve to indicate a great con- 
flict of opinion in the council, that although tlie act establish- 
ing the new Liturgy had passed before April 16, it was not 
until October 27, just four days before the book was to come 
into use, that the government made up their minds to insert 
this protestation. Of course, so inserted by order of council 
only, it had no authority of parliament. A convocation was 
summoned for the following September, but the king's death 
* in July prevented its assembling. So far, the protestation 

' Life of Cranmer, b. ii. c. 33. 

either in Edward's time or Elizabeth's. 135 

we are considering had neither tlie authority of the Church Chaf. IV. 
nor of the State. 

§ 10. On the accession of Queen Elizabeth, it came of 
course into discussion with the other contents of King Ed- 
ward's book. But in that revision it was omitted, and the 
rubric for kneeling simply retained, without any explanation, 
although it appears from a paper in Strype s that the posture 
of the communicant was left free — free, that is, as between 
standing and kneeling (both which are postures of adoration) — 
in the first draft of the bill prepared by the divines for parlia- 
ment. As far as Strype knew, the single emendation adopted 
by the first parliament of Elizabeth in the Common Prayer as 
submitted to them, was making the posture of kneeling com- 
pulsory. And according to all the experience of that reign, 
we may well suppose this due to the influence of the Queen ; 
and it may perhaps be set down (especially if we connect 
it with the omission of the explanatory note of King Ed- 
ward's council) as one of the instances in which Elizabeth's 
Catholic tendencies succeeded in counteracting the exclusive- 
ness of many of her people and some of her ministers. It 
betokens the same faith in the Real Presence, and sympathy 
with those who maintained it, as did the cross and lights 
which she continued in her private chapels, in spite of so 
many remonstrances from her chaplains of the Frankfort and 
Genevan schools, and from her councillors, who feared their 
influence with the people. Nor can we in any more pro- 
bable way account for the remarkable enactment and rubric 
— ^just now the object of so much attention — which have been 
supposed to form the standard of our ritual in such matters : 
— " The minister at the time of Communion, and at all other 
times in his ministrations, shall use such ornaments in the 
church as were in use by authority of parliament in the 
second year of King Edw. VI., according to the act of par- 
liament set forth in the beginning of this Book." 

This second of Edward VI. is precisely the last year in 
which the ritual of the unreformed Church was in the realm 
by authority of parliament : I mean, of course, in all matters 
which had not been specially interfered with. For the First 

« Ann. l.i. 122 J 11.464. 

136 The Admonition restored in 1662; with a Change, 

Chap. IV. Book of Edward, the first reformed Liturgy, did not come in 
use by authority of parliament until Whitsunday, 1549, which 
fell far within the third year of Edward VI. Therefore, strange 
as the assertion may sound, and unadvisable as, of course, it 
would be to affect to carry it out, it would perhaps be true 
to say, that the Church ornaments and furniture then com- 
mon here, and now among the Lutherans, were not only tole- 
rated, but enacted under penalties by the law of England in 
Elizabeth's time. One cannot suppose so wide and serious an 
enactment, touching so many, as it were, in the apple of their 
eye, to have passed in mere inadvertence. What more pro- 
bable than that the Queen, as her known inclination and 
after conduct would lead us to expect, threw her weight — de- 
cisive, of course — into the scale of those who wished to pre- 
serve or restore the old ornaments, and that the arrange- 
ments of her private chapel were intended to be strictly con- 
formable to the law so interpreted? Thus, when Parker first, 
and afterwards Cox and others, remonstrated with her on 
those practices, we do not find it alleged by them that her 
Majesty was violating the law of the land : yet this would 
surely have been among their topics, had they put the same 
construction on the rubric which has since become familiar 
to us. Their arguments are all drawn from the second com- 
mandment, the peril of idolatry, and the like. And when 
they would proceed in their dioceses against the obnoxious 
ornaments, we find them obtaining "injunctions from the 
Queen's Majesty," — I suppose under the last part of the 
twenty-fifth clause of the Act of Uniformity; which seems 
to imply that if she withheld her injunction the ornament 
would not be illegal : otherwise each bishop might have 
acted at once for himself. 

§ 11. Under such a state of the law, and with such a dis- 
position on the part of the sovereign, began the long years 
of conflict with Puritanism, throughout which this question 
of the receiver's posture at Holy Communion supplied an 
outward and visible symbol of the deep doctrinal difi'er- 
ences which were really at issue. And when the Prayer-book 
came once again under authoritative review at the Resto- 
ration, then, and not until then, (it being determined that 

guarding the Doctrine of the Essential Presence. 137 

the posture of kneeling should still be compulsory,) was the Chap. IV. 
Admonition of 1552 adopted by the Church in Convocation, 
as part of our present Prayer-book, and legalized, as all men 
know, by the second Act of Uniformity. 

It may be asked why, if the tenor of that Admonition be 
really so favourable, as I have now alleged, to the doctrine 
of the Real Presence, and to legitimate adoration, was it 
rejected by Queen Elizabeth, and by the parliament under 
her influence? In answer it may be sufficient to refer to 
one brief but pregnant alteration, familiar to all who have 
looked at the history of the Prayer-book, which the divines 
of 1662 made in the document before they adopted it. King 
Edward's Council had said, "We do declare that it is not 
meant thereby that any adoration is done or ought to be 
done, either unto the sacramental bread and wine there 
bodily received, or to any real and essential Presence there 
being of Christ's natural flesh and blood." But the Church 
of England in the Prayer-book of 1662 declared, and still 
continues to declare, the same concerning any corporal Pre- 
sence. "Corporal" is not equivalent to "real and essen- 
tial." It is not only associated with grosser and more car- 
nal ideas, but in its strict philosophical meaning implies 
also something local, in the sense of filling a certain space ; 
ocKeiav 7repiypd(f3'}]v, the form of His glorious Body. " Real," 
" substantial," " essential," imply nothing of the kind. They 
express our faith in the miracle, without in the least pre- 
tending to indicate the manner of it. By the very change 
liberty is left, and must have been intended to be left, to 
adore Him, as the Catechism had taught us to believe Him, 
really, substantially, essentially present. That permission is 
as plainly implied as the prohibition to worship Him " cor- 
porally" present is expressed. Such, no doubt, was the 
meaning of divines like Ridley in 1552; although the form 
which they were led to adopt was unfortunately capable of a 
much more questionable interpretation. It is probable, too, 
that Queen Elizabeth, both in principle and in policy, would 
wish to leave such questions open, as far as might be, on the 
Roman as well as on the Lutheran side ; and for the same 
reason that the Thirty-nine Articles, and amongst them 

138 Cosin's first Statement on the Real Presence : 

CnAP. IV. the sentence against Transubstantiation, were not entirely 
adopted by the Church of England until 1571, this decla- 
ration also might be advisedly omitted. 

§ 12. We can hardly be wrong in this interpretation of the 
clause in question ; for it has more or less warrant from the 
very divines who had the chief hand in that last revision of 
the Liturgy. Bishop Cosin, e. g., in his first set of Notes on 
the Prayer-book'', feared not to say, "It is confessed by all 
divines, that upon the words of consecration the Body and 
Blood of Christ is really and substantially present, and so 
exhibited and given to all that receive it; and all this not 
after a physical and sensual, but after a heavenly and in- 
visible and incomprehensible manner : but yet there re- 
mains this controversy among some of them ; whether the 
Body of Christ be present only in the use of the Sacrament, 
and in the act of eating, and not otherwise. They that hold 
the affirmative, as the Lutherans (in Conf. Saxon.) and all 
Calvinists do, seem to rae to depart from all antiquity, which 
places the Presence of Christ in the virtue of the words of 
consecration and benediction used by the priest, and not in 
the use of eating of the Sacrament ; for they tell us that the 
virtue of that consecration is not lost, though the Sacrament 
be reserved, either for sick persons or other. Whereupon 
Cassander, quoting S. Cyril on S. Luke, saith, ' They are 
mad who say that the mystical benediction of the Sacra- 
ment ceaseth, or loseth its virttie, if any remains stand over 
for days to come; for the holy Body of Christ will not 
be changed, but the virtue of the benediction and the life- 
giving grace is perpetual in it.' And this did most of the Pro- 
testants grant and profess at first, though now the Calvinists 
make popish magic of it in their licentious blasphemy.'" 

Here it is very observable, that Cosin adopts (it must have 
been on purpose) a phrase equivalent to that which King 
Edward's Council, or rather Bucer speaking through them, 
had recommended the Church of England to disown and 
deprecate. Bucer wanted to make us all say, " No adoration 
is done, or ought to be done, .... unto any real and essential 
Presence there being of Christ's natural Flesh and Blood." 

i" Works, Anglo-Cath. Lib., v. 131. 

how far afterwards withdrawn. 139 

Cosin says, " The Body and Blood of Christ is really and C"^p- ^^- 
substantially present." 

So far, at any rate, Bishop Cosin continued in the same 
mind, when he bore his part — apparently, a principal part 
— in the arrangement of our present Liturgy. And in 
his third series of Notes on the Prayer-book, v. 480, he 
remarks with evident satisfaction, that " this rubric, by the 
tenor of it, seems to be no part of the Prayer-book;" not 
being, it would seem, aware of its history, but struck, as any 
one might be, with the expression, so and so "is ordered 
in the Book of Common Prayer ;" not at all a natural way of 
speaking, if the sentence were itself part of the book. 

At a later period Cosin quotes from Calixtus, with general 
approbation, the following sentence : " Dura, accipiunt, in 
genua procumbentes, Christum Dominum, qui praesens eis 
digne edentibus et bibentibus adest, suumque corpus man- 
ducandum, et sanguinem bibendum exhibet, venerantur et 
adorant; non quidem elementa in sacramentum significata, 
quae adoranda non sunt, sed ipsum Dominum et Deum no- 
strum Jesum Christum'." This, I own, Cosin qualifies so as 
to limit the Presence to the faithful receiver, and to the very 
moment of receiving ; and so far he withdraws his former, 
and, as I conceive, his more primitive, opinion ; still, how- 
ever, implying, that wherever there is Sacramental Presence 
there cannot but be special adoration, only not directed to 
the outward part or sign, but to the thing signified, — Christ's 
Person, present by the Presence of His Body and Blood. 

Whatever he withdrew, it is plain that he had not with- 
drawn his faith in the Real and Essential Presence, and in 
the dutiful necessity of adoring our Lord so present. Nor 
is it irrelevant to remark, that had Cosin had his own way 
in all points, the order of our Liturgy would have been 
brought as near to that of King Edward's first Book as the 
first Scottish office was, and as the American is now. In 
particular, the Prayer of Oblation and the Lord's Prayer 
would have come between Consecration and Communion. 
Tliis we may surely consider to be a clear indication what he 
thought of the doctrine of Eucharistical Sacrifice. And we 
' Works, Anglo-Ctith. Lib., v. 345. 

140 Opinions of Bishop Overall, 

Chap. IV. may infer that he never would have sanctioned our present 
order, had he regarded it as inconsistent with that doctrine. 

And with regard to the first-quoted passage, in which 
Cosin had asserted not only a Real and Substantial, but also 
a Ileal Objective Presence from the moment of consecration ; 
it may be neutralized on that point, as far as he is concerned, 
by what he afterwards wrote ; but this does not destroy the 
force of the same passage as an evidence of Bishop Overall's 
mind on the subject. Cosin, as is well known, was Overall's 
chaplain and disciple ; and to him, in the first set of Notes 
especially, he all along refers with entire reverence. We 
may take it for granted that on such a point Cosin, in his 
earlier days, would not speak positively without his master ; 
and we may conclude with some confidence that Overall held 
strongly the doctrine of Christ's Presence immediately after 
consecration, and not in the faithful receiver only. 

And Overall is the author of the section on Sacraments in 
the Catechism. He it is who has taught us all from our 
childhood, that Christ's Body and Blood are the inward part 
of the Lord's Supper, coexisting with the outward part — with 
Bread and Wine, over which the words of Christ have been 
spoken by one who is for that purpose as Christ Himself. 

§ 13. There were other revisers in 1661, whose views on 
this subject are either declared by themselves, or may be 
with tolerable certainty conjectured from other facts known 
concerning them. Bishop Wren, of Ely, for example, at 
whose house, by reason of his extreme age, the conferences 
were held, had been one of those most prominent in acting 
under Laud, and enduring persecution with him for Christ's 
altar's sake. Now Laud's principle as to the Real Presence 
appears in a remark on Bellarmine, Avho had said, " The Con- 
version of the Bread and Wine into the Body and Blood of 
Christ is substantial, but after a secret and ineflFable man- 
ner." " Now," says Laud, " if he had left out ' con- 
version,' and affirmed only Christ's ' real Presence' there, 
after a mysterious, and indeed an ineffable, manner, no 
man could have spoken better ''." 

'' Conf. with Fisher, Works, A.-C. L. place assumes, that except in regard 
ii. 322. The whole arguiueut iu that of Tronsubstantiation and its corol- 

and of Archbishop Laud. 141 

His principle as to adoration was, " The altar is the great- Chap. IV. 
est place of God's residence upon earth — greater than the 
pulpit ; for there 'tis Hoc est Coi'pus meum . . . but in 
the other it is at most but IToc est verbuni meum; and a 
greater reverence is due to the Body than to the Word 
of the Lord^" But "When this reverence is performed, 
'tis to God as to the Creator, and so divine ; but 'tis only 
'toward,' not 'to' the altar, and so, far short™." This is 
just the principle of kneeling at the Eucharist, as I suppose 
it to be explained in the Protestation of 1661. That reve- 
rence is done " to" the Body and Blood, as to the Person of 
Christ there present in a special way ; but only " toward," 
not " to," the elements, and " so, far short." Or, as it is less 
quaintly expressed in the Scottish Canons of 1636, ch. vi. 
can. 6": "Superstition and profaneness are both of them 
extremities to be avoided : as therefore the adoration of the 
bread is condemned, so the unreverent communicating, and 
not discerning of those holy mysteries, must be eschewed. 
Therefore it is ordained, that the Holy Sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper be received with the bowing of the knee, to 
testify the devotion and thankfulness of the receivers for that 
most excellent gift." The seventh English Canon of 1640 
recommends " reverence and obeisance," not " upon any 
opinion of a corporal Presence" . . "but only for the ad- 
vancement of God's Majesty, . . . and no otherwise"." It 
will be seen on comparing these citations, that in Laud's 
opinion, denying a corporal Presence was not inconsistent 
with believing a substantial Presence. It was not that his 
opinion had altered when he issued the Canon. For, 1. The 
Conference was published by him only in 1639, and the 
Canon dates from 1640, 2. In his last will he directs the 
Conference to be "translated into Latin and sent abroad, 
that the Christian world may see and judge of" his "re- 

laries, our doctrine of the Eucharistical nious imputation of Burton and others. 

Presence is the same as the Roman. that in gestures of reverence to the 

' Laud's Works, A.-C. L. iv. 284. Church or Altar " we worship the 

■» Ibid. 285. holy Table," or God knows what." 

" Ibid. V. 574. Speech at the Censure of Bastwick, 

° Ibid. 626. The "no otherwise" &c. vi. pt. i. p. 57. 
is clearly meant to disavow the calum- 

1 42 Opinions of Herbert and others : 

C gAP. IV. § 14. If Bishop Wren may be justly regarded as an ex- 
ponent of Laud's doctrine, Bishop Henchman of Salisbury, 
another of the revisers, may seem to stand in the same rela- 
tion to George Herbert. This is Walton's statement con- 
cerning them. At the time of Mr. Herbert's being or- 
dained priest, "the Rev. Dr. Humphrey Henchman, now Lord 
Bishop of London, (who does not mention him but with 
some veneration for his life and excellent learning), tells me 
he laid his hand" (being then a prebendary of Salisbury) 
" on Mr. Herbert's head, and alas ! within three years lent 
his shoulder to carry his dear friend to the grave." Now 
Collier says of the same Bishop Henchman, " He is reported 
well acquainted with the Fathers and Councils." He at the 
Savoy Conference " discoursed with great temper, but was 
strongly against large abatements and schemes of compre- 
hension. This prelate, together with Sheldon and Morley, is 
said to have had the chief management of this affairP." One 
should not expect from this, that Bishop Henchman would 
fail to sympathize with Herbert on such a point as the Real 
Presence. Now what Herbert thought of that doctrine, and 
of the consequent practice of adoration, has been shewn 
already, and may be further judged of by what follows : — 
"The Country Parson . . . especially at Communion-times, 
is in great confusion, as being not only to receive God, but to 
break and administer Him. Neither finds he any issue in 
this, but to throw himself down at the Throne of Grace, say- 
ing, Lord, Thou knowest what Thou didst, when Thou ap- 
pointedst it to be done thus; therefore do Thou fulfil what 
Thou didst appoint : for Thou art not only the Feast, but 
the way to it<i.' " 

Bishop Earle, then Dean of Worcester, another friend and 
neighbour of Herbert's, was on the commission for discussing 
the Prayer-book with the Presbyterians. It was not likely 
that he, any more than Henchman, would deliberately sanc- 
tion a formula which must have cast Herbert out of the 

I may mention also Sparrow, afterwards Bishop of Exeter, 
who, in his " Rationale of Common Prayer/' p. 236, gives 

V ii. 885, fol. "» c. 22. 

of Nicholson and Thorndike. 143 

the following account of the posture enjoined at the Eucha- Ch ap. IV. 
rist : " It is to be given to the people kneeling ; for a sin it 
is not to adore when we receive this Sacrament." " And the 
old custom was to receive it after the manner of adoration." ♦ 
For which he quotes S. Augustine and S. Cyril. 

Bishop NichoKon also, of Gloucester, one of the final 
revisers, writes thus of the holy Eucharist : " All the words 
used by Divines in this Mystery may receive a candid inter- 
pretation, except that of Eome. 1. That Christ is in the 
Sacrament corporally, substantially, and perhaps consub- 
stantially, may have a respect to the subject or supposite, of 
the relatum and correlatum, their meaning no more than 
that He is there under the forms of Bread and Wine, not 
changed in substance but in use ; as it is in other re- 
lations ; as e. g. betwixt a father and a son ; who though 
they relate to each other, yet they remain two distinct sub- 
stances, and the same they were^" 

Thorndike's view is expressed in the following passages, 
among others. " I suppose that the Body and Blood of 
Christ may be adored, wheresoever they are." . . . "And is 
not the presence thereof in the Sacrament of the Eucharist 
a just occasion, presently to express by the bodily act of 
adoration that inward honour which we always carry to- 
wards our Lord Christ as God?" . . . " I do believe that it 
was so practised and done in the ancient Church j which I 
maintain from the beginning to have been the true Church 
of Christ, obliging all to conform to it in all things within 
the power of it." ..." For I do acknowledge the testimonies 
that are produced out of S. Ambrose, S. Augustin, S. Chry- 
sostom, Theodoret, S. Gregory Nazianzen, S. Jerome,]Origen : 
where he teacheth to say at the receiving of the Sacrament, 
* Lord, I am not worthy that Thou shouldst [come under 
my roof:' which to say, is to do that which I conclude. Nor 
do I need more to conclude it. And what reason can I have 
not to conclude it ? Have I supposed the elements ... to be 
abolished ? or any thing else concerning the Flesh and Blood 
of Christ or the presence thereof in the Eucharist, — in giving 
a reason why the Church may do it, — which the Church did 
' Expos, of the Catechism, 178, A.-C. L. 

1 44 Opinions of the Savoy Commissioners. 

Chap. IV. not believe ? If I have, I disclaim it as soon as it may ap- 
pear to me for such *." 

But it is needless to multiply single testimonies, since we 
are able to cite the allegation of the members of that vene- 
rable commission as a body. " The posture of kneeling best 
suits at the Communion as the most convenient, and so most 
decent for us, when we are to receive as it were from God's 
hand the greatest of seals of the kingdom of heaven. He 
that thinks he may do this sitting, let him remember the 
prophet Malachi, ' Offer this to the prince, to receive his seal 
from his own hand sitting, see if he will accept of it.' When 
the Church did stand at her prayers, the manner of receiving 
was more adorantium, (S. Aug., Ps. xcviii. ; Cyril. Catech. 
Mystag. 5,) rather more than at prayers; since, standing at 
prayer hath been generally left, and kneeling used instead of 
that, (as the Church may vary in such indifferent things). 
Now to stand at Communion, when we kneel at prayers, 
were not decent, much less to sit, which was never the use 
of the best times." 

Observe how studiously they refer to the practice of the 
ancient Church : according to their own principle set in the 
forefront of their reply, " The Church hath been careful to 
put nothing in the Liturgy, but that which is either evidently 
the Word of God, or what hath been generally received in 
the Catholic Church ^" And again, " If by ' orthodox' be 
meant those who adhere to Scripture and the catholic con- 
sent of antiquity, we do not yet know that any part of our 
Liturgy has been questioned by such".'^ 

And the two references to S. Augustine and S. Cyril, and 
the phrase more adorantium, sufficiently shew that they, who 
first gave Church authority among us to Bucer's amended 
protestation, intended by the rule of kneeling at Holy Com- 
munion at least to tolerate that which the Fathers meant, 
when they spoke of worshipping " the earth wliich our Lord 
took of the Virgin Mary," — His Body and Blood, sacra- 
mentally but most truly present, in some way known to God, 
with the consecrated elements. 

» Of the Laws of the Church, c. xxxi. § 1, 4, 5, 6. 
» Collier, ii. 883 ; Cardwell, Hist, of Conferencos, 337. » Ibid. 338. 

Their Tone as to the Confession of Augsburgh. 145 

This construction of the rubric in question seems to be Chap. IV. 
confirmed by two or three circumstances in the Conference 
which led to its adoption. First; one of the ^'^ exceptions 
of the ministers" against the Book of Common Prayer having 
been expressed as follows, " We should . . have our Liturgy 
so composed, as to gain upon the judgments and affection of 
all those who in the substantial of the Protestant religion 
are of the same persuasions with ourselves :" the Bishops in 
answer say, " It was the wisdom of our Reformers to draw 
up such a Liturgy as neither Romanist nor Protestant could 
justly except against; and therefore as the first never charged 
it with any positive errors, but only the want of something 
they conceived necessary, so it was never found fault with by 
those to whom the name of Protestants most properly belongs, 
— those that profess the Augustan Confession^.'''' Could they 
have said so, if they had accounted the doctrine of the Eu- 
charist as taught in that Confession untenable in the Church 
of England ? could they have meant to make it untenable by 
the rubric which they presently afterwards sanctioned ? 

2. The Commissioners did but unwillingly entertain the 
proposal for re-introducing that rubric : their first reply to it 
was "', " This rubric is not in the Liturgy of Queen Elizabeth, 
nor confirmed by law ; nor is there any great need of re- 
storing it, the world being now in more danger of profana- 
tion than of idolatry. Besides, the sense of it is declared 
sufficiently in the 28th Article of the Church of England." 
Upon which it plainly follows, that whatever account may be 
fairly given of the terms of that Article, as compatible with a 
Real Objective Presence, the same is applicable to the ad- 
monitory rubric, as intended by those who framed it. 

3. Burnet '^ informs us that the eventual concession of the 
Commissioners on this point was chiefly due to the efforts of 
Bishop Gauden, but that it was in a great measure neutral- 
ized by "P. G." (Peter Gunning), who procured the signi- 
ficant alteration in the terms of the rubric, "corporal" being 
substituted for " real and essential," — a change which Burnet 
himself evidently regrets, intimating thereby that it was gene- 

' Cardwell, Hist, of Conferences, » Own Times, i. 183 fol. ; Hist, of 

305, 338. " Ibid. 354. Ref. iii. Prcf. p. viii. Oxf. 1816. 

146 Changes made by them in the Rubric. 

C hap. IV . rally considered as leaving the point at least open ; that it was 
so meant by its promoters, and that he himself so understood 
it. At any rate we seem warranted in adding the name of Dr. 
Gunning to those among the revisers of 1661, who could not 
have intended by what they were doing to exclude from the 
English Church all belief in a Real and Substantial Presence. 

§ 15. It is plain that any passages bearing on the ques- 
tion of Adoration, either in the Liturgy itself, or in the other 
portions of the Prayer-book, or in the Articles or Homilies, 
were intended to be read by the light of this protestation, 
the latest authoritative statement of the Church of Eng- 
land on the subject. In the revised Liturgy, for example, 
significant changes were made, (as all men know,) at least 
in four important portions of the Office. First, in the pre- 
liminary exhortation, the words of King Edward's second 
Prayer-book, copied in that of Elizabeth, are, " He hath 
given His Son our Saviour Jesus Christ, not only to die for 
us, but also to be our spiritual food and sustenance, as it is 
declared unto us, as well by God's Word as by the holy Sacra- 
ments of His blessed Body and Blood." In 1662 this was 
altered to the present form, " To be our spiritual food and 
sustenance in that holy Sacrament.''' The change from "by" 
to " in," and the omission of the saying about God's Word, 
introduce an obvious and important meaning : the same, no 
doubt, with the corresponding clause in the first Prayer-book 
of King Edward, — " hath not only given His body to death, 
and hath shed His blood, but also doth vouchsafe, in a Sa- 
crament or Mystery, to give us His said Body and Blood to 
feed upon spiritually." 

There is, secondly, the direction to the priest himself to 
set the Bread and Wine on the altar-table, under the name 
of oblations, with a petition for their acceptance. 

Thirdly, the rubric for celebration adds or restores the fol- 
lowing particulars : — that the prayer is called the Prayer of 
Consecration; that the priest is to stand before the table; 
that he is to break the Bread and take the Cup into his 
hands before the people, doing the acts, as well as saying the 
words, with which our Lord consecrated at first. These 
were all changes in the same direction with that very sig- 

The Burden of Proof lies on those who reject Adoration. 147 

nificant one made in Elizabeth's time, — the restoration of the Cuap. I v. 
words, " the Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ," to 
the form of distribution. So much the less probable would 
it appear, that in adopting King Edward's rubric, which 
Elizabeth had ignored, the revisers meant to damage the 
doctrine of a Real and Essential Presence ; so much the more 
are we encouraged to believe that they drew the distinction 
which we contend for, between "Corporal" and "Essential," 
and intended to express it by the way in which they modified 
the statement. 

Fourthly, in the Post-Communion, (what, on reflection, 
appears very significant,) our present Liturgy is the only 
English one which provides for the covering of the con- 
secrated Bread and Wine, if any be left, with a fair linen 
cloth, and for the reverent eating and drinking of it by the 
priest and some of the communicants : correcting what was 
most probably an oversight in the last rubric of Queen 
Elizabeth's Liturgy, which says simply, " If any of the Bread 
and Wine remain, the priest may have it to his own use ;" 
making, in words, no difference between consecrated and 

These details, taking them one with another, are such as 
not simply to add decency to the celebration, but likewise to 
recall and bring out the ideas of a real Sacrifice and a real 
Presence, before (in the judgment of the revisers) too much 
obscured. And those are not ideas to be forgotten or put 
aside, when the person impressed with them kneels to receive 
the Sacrament. If he believe and consider, he cannot choose 
but adore. 

§ 16. And now, what was said before of the Scriptural 
argument may with some reason, perhaps, be repeated here ; 
that some very distinct and positive prohibition ought to be 
produced from some document of equal authority with the 
Prayer-book, before the worship of the Inward Part of the 
Eucharist can be pronounced unlawful in the Church of 
England. Such prohibition is supposed to be found in the 
Articles; aud the supposition, as all men know, has lately 
received countenance from high authority. It has been ruled 
that the doctrine contained in this saying, namely, "Wor- 

L 2 

148 The XXVIIIth Article no Censure on Adoration : 

Chap. IV. ship is due to the real though invisible and supernatural 
Presence of the Body and Blood of Christ in the holy Eucha- 
rist under the form of Bread and Wine/' is " directly con- 
trary and repugnant to the twenty-eighth and twenty-ninth 
Articles of Religion y." 

Greatly indeed it were to be wished, for many obvious 
reasons, that the particular words of the Article, or Articles, 
to which the document alludes, had been specified, either in 
the sentence itself, or if that course would have been in- 
formal, in the judgment which preceded it. In default of 
such specification, one can only surmise that the sentence 
proceeds either (1.) upon the last clause of Art. XXVIII.; 
or (2.) upon some doctrine supposed to be implied in the 
two Articles taken as a whole. 

The last clause of Art. XXVIII. is, " The Sacrament of 
the Lord's Supper was not by Christ's ordinance reserved, 
carried about, lifted up, or worshipped^ This being the 
only place in the Articles where Eucharistlcal Adoration is 
mentioned, it seems natural to look to it for an explana- 
tion of the sentence. Yet many perhaps may feel hesitation 
in doing so : the premiss will appear to them so palpably 
unable to support the conclusion, that they will cast about 
in their mind for some other ground on which the judges 
must have proceeded. 

For what, after all, does this proposition amount to, " The 
Sacrament was not by Christ's ordinance worshipped?" Take 
it in its logical form; it is not so much as a censure on 
the practice. It need not mean more than that the out- 
ward adoration was no necessary part of our Lord's in- 

Let us put a case connected with the holy Eucharist. 
Suppose (since we know that very sad and hurtful contro- 
versies have arisen on the point) that some Eastern Council, 
wishing to allay disputes, had passed a canon in these terms, 
"The Sacrament of the Lord's Supper was not by Christ's 
ordinance consecrated in leavened bread :" could we justly 
understand more than this ; that whereas a notion had pre- 
vailed, and been fiercely maintained, that the leaven was a 
1 Proceedings in Archdeacon Denison's Case, pp. 134, 5. 

any more than on Reservation. 149 

necessary part of the ordinance, it should not hereafter be chap. iv. 
insisted on, nor those Christians censured as departing from 
Christ's institution, who_, as in the West, thought it suit- 
able to " put away" the leaven ? Would not the clause, so 
worded, have still left it open to Easterns, continuing to think 
leaven more agreeable to the institution of Christ, to go on 
using leaven, and arguing for it as the more dutiful way? 
There might be many reasons for it, though it were no 
necessary part of Christ's ordinance; and so, for anything 
that appears to the contrary in the wording of this clause, 
there might be powerful reasons for the very adoration of 
the Eucharist, and an English clergyman might be free to 
allege those reasons. 

§ 17. This argument gains in strength, if we go on to 
consider the other practices enumerated here to be for- 
bidden along with adoration. They are Reservation, carry- 
ing in Procession, and Elevation. As far as the wording of 
the sentence goes, those thi-ee usages are equally forbidden 
with the worship of the Sacrament, and deprivation would 
be alike incurred by pleading for or inculcating either one 
of the four. Yet it is notorious that reservation had been 
practised from the beginning in the ancient Church, for the 
benefit, at least, of the sick and persecuted: Justin Martyr^ 
saying, " To those who are not present the consecrated gifts 
are sent by the deacons ;" and Irenseus ^ testifying that in the 
time of Anicetus, i. e. the middle of the second century, the 
Eucharist used to be sent as a pledge of Communion from 
one diocese to another. 

Further : reservation had only just ceased to be part of the 
reformed English Ritual ; for until 1552 the Communion of 
the Sick was thus ordered : On days of public celebration, 
the priest " shall reserve so much of the Sacrament of the 
Body and Blood as shall serve the sick person, and as many 
as shall communicate with him, (if there be any) ; and so 
soon as he conveniently may after the open Communion, 
shall go to administer the same ^ ." 

Now we may well understand that there might be abuses 

' 1 Apol. § 65. • Ep. ad Victor, ap. Euseb. EccL Hist. v. 24 

<> Two Liturgies, p. 3G8. 

150 The condemned Proposition not contrary to the Article. 

Chap. IV. and superstitious practices, which might entirely justify the 
Church, or any portion of it, in suspending or abrogating such 
an usage; and that, in order to reconcile men's minds to the 
change, it might be needful to point out that reservation 
was no part of Christ's institution. But supposing a clergy- 
man to think and argue, on grounds devotional, doctrinal, 
or practical, that it was our duty to restore the practice ; so 
long as he refrained from holding that it was part of Christ's 
institution, would any one say that the clergyman was hold- 
ing doctrine contrary or repugnant to the Article ? 

Now if this hold in respect of the reservation, why not 
in respect of the worship also? If Bishop Ridley (e, g.) 
were now living, and were to write and preach what he 
maintained almost with his last breath on this subject, — 

"We hold with the eyes of faith Him present after gi-ace, and 
spiritually set upon the table; and we worship Him that sitteth 
above, and is worshipped of Angels. . . . We adore and worship Chi'ist 
in the Eucharist; and, if you mean the external Sacrament, I say 
that also is to be worshipped as a Sacrament *=;" — 
we might demur to his concluding affirmation as likely to 
be offensive ; but since he neither affirms nor implies any- 
thing here concerning Christ's ordinance, how could we say 
with show of reason that he was contradicting this pro- 
position, "The Sacrament was not by Christ's ordinance 
worshipped ?" 

§ 18. So much would be true, as touching Art. XXVIII., 
were a person even to maintain the worship of the whole 
Sacrament, or of the outward part. But now the proposi- 
tion which has been condemned formally excludes both these 
from worship, and limits itself to the Inward Part alone. 
Thus it runs : 

" It is not true that the consecrated Bread and Wine are changed 
in their natural substances, for they remain in their very natural sub- 
stances, and therefore may not be adored. It is true that worship 
is due to the real though invisible and supernatural presence of the 
Body and Blood of Chiist ia the Holy Eucharist, under the fonn of 
Bread and Wine ^." 

Be it well noted that this latter phrase is a description 

•^ rroccedings, &c. at Bath, p. 94 •• Ibid. p. 226. 

Adoration claimed for the Inward Part only. 151 

of the Inward Part or thing signified in the Sacrament, as Chap. IV. 
" Bread and Wine which the Lord hath commanded to be re- 
ceived," is of the outward part or sign — " the outward visible 
sign or form" — with which the Inward Part is sacrament- 
ally connected : that connection being signified, as is usual 
in language, by the preposition * under/ Now propositions, 
to be contrary to one another, must have substantially the 
same subject and predicate. Is this the case here? The 
subject of the condemned proposition — (I change the word- 
ing for reverence' sake, but the two expressions are meant 
to be, and I believe are, equivalent;) — the subject, I say, of 
the condemned proposition is " the Inward Part or thing sig- 
nified in the Lord's Supper." What is the subject of the 
proposition in the Article ? " The Sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper." Can this possibly mean " the inward part or thing 
signified only?" 

The word * Sacrament,' as every one knows, has a looser 
and a stricter use. In its stricter use, as defined in the Cate- 
chism, it means both the outward and inward parts. In 
that sense the proposition condemned, limiting itself as it 
does to the inward part only, cannot contradict the proposi- 
tion in the Article, for it speaks of a difi'erent subject. If 
we take the wider meaning of ' Sacrament,^ whereby it is 
taken for Sacrce rei signum, any divinely intended sign of 
something pertaining to God, then the " Sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper" must mean the outward part, not the in- 
ward — the Bread and Wine, not the Body and Blood of 
Christ : for These are not the sign, but the thing signified. 
In neither acceptation, then, can the word Sacrament mean 
the Inward Part in the Eucharist exclusively ; and yet, un- 
less you give it that meaning, there is plainly no repugnance 
nor contrariety between the condemned proposition and the 
proposition in the Article. 

That the proposition in the Article refers not to the in- 
ward part, was distinctly stated (if the report be correct) by 
the counsel for the promoters of the last sentence : 

"The Article closes with this statement: — 'The Sacrament of 
the Lord's Supper was not by Christ's ordinance reserved, carried 
about, lifted up, or worshipped,' which shewed the distinction that 

152 The Sentence seems to deny the Real Presence. 

Chap. IV. was made between the outward and visible sign, and the inward and 
spiritual grace. They could not reserve the spiritual grace, they 
could not carry that about, they could not lift it up, — it was of a 
spiritual nature. Therefore, again he contended that it shewed this 
Article used the words ' Sacrament of the Lord's Supper' in a sense 
which confined it to the outward and visible sign, to that which they 
could see — to that which they could handle «." 

Is not this expressly maintaining that the worship of the 
outward part is the only worship forbidden (if it be forbidden) 
in that Article? and is it not prima facie surprising that on 
such premises a condemnation should have passed, not only 
on Mr. Denison but on Bishop Andrewes, whose words were 
declared by a principal person in the court to be "a re- 
iteration" of what had been said before ? those words being, 
"Christ Himself, the Thing signified of the Sacrament, in 
and with the Sacrament, is to be worshipped." 

As to the predicates of the two propositions — that in the 
Article, and that which has incurred condemnation — they 
have been already shewn not to be identical, unless it be the 
same thing to say that a thing ought to be done, and that 
it is formally ordained by our Lord. 

§ 19. All things considered, there seems much reason to 
fear that the sentence proceeded not so much on the final 
clause of Art. XXVIII. as on a certain construction of that 
and the following Article taken together, making out not only 
Transubstantiation, but any Real Objective Presence to be 
virtually denied in them. This, granting the construction, 
would make the proceeding logical, — a thing too hard for 
human skill, if their sole allegation were the saying in the 
twenty-eighth Article. But what was gained in logic would 
be lost in candour and frankness, — to say nothing just now 
of sound theology. 

For the question of the Real Objective Presence was raised 
in the Articles exhibited to the Archbishop at Bath*^, and that 
doctrine was not treated argumentatively, but assumed to be 
an error, in the pleadings of the promoter's advocate ; after- 
wards, the defendant's reply having been heard, the point of 

' I'roctedings &c. at Batli, p. 70. ' iirts. IX., XII., XIV. 

The Real Presence not denied in Article XXVIII. 153 

the Real Presence, and also that of its depending upon con- Chap. IV. 
secration, were withdrawn s. If, after all this, the convic- 
tion on the matter of adoration went upon the ground that 
the Real Presence after consecration is an error condemned 
by the Articles, it surely ought to have been so declared by 
the court, in Christian and fatherly charity to souls which 
were sure to be perplexed and offended ; if not in plain and 
simple justice to persons amenable to the law, and naturally 
anxious to know what their own legal position is. 

But now, supposing for a moment — what, under these 
circumstances, can hardly be supposed — that the adoration 
was condemned simply because it was felt to imply the Real 
Presence, still the condemnation professes to ground itself 
on these two Articles; and therefore it seems requisite for 
the completeness of this argument to shew that those Ar- 
ticles, taken by themselves, do in no wise negative the idea 
of such a Presence as is alleged. And this may be very 
quickly done. 

In the twenty-eighth Article, the first paragraph states 
" that to such as rightly, worthily, and with faith receive 
the same," i. e. the Sacrament, " the Bread which we break 
is a partaking of the Body of Christ ; and likewise the Cup 
of blessing is a partaking of the Blood of Christ." Now 
take the literal and grammatical meaning of this, (for I pre- 
sume it will hardly be contended that an accuser may travel 
out of that meaning, while a defender is so strictly confined 
to it) : what is there in the saying that " the Bread is a par- 
taking of Christ's Body," inconsistent, literally and gram- 
matically, with the saying that the Body is really present? 
The first may not warrant the second ; but is there any con- 
tradiction? Surely, of the two, there is something more like 
a contradiction in denying the Presence of that which is af- 
firmed to be partaken of. 

The Article proceeds to deny Transubstantiation : but to 
say that this is denying the Ileal Presence, is just begging 
the question. Certainly the objections here taken to Tran- 
substantiation do not apply to the notion that the inward 
and outward parts are both equally present. That notion, 

K Proceedings, &c. at Bath, pp. 69, 70, 72—74, 125. 

154 Meaning of the "Faith'' whereby we receive. 

Chap. IV. taken according to the letter, is proveable from Scripture. 
It maintains the "nature of a Sacrament/' making both 
parts real. Nor does it appear from history to have been 
the " occasion of many superstitions." 

"The Body of Christ is given, taken, and eaten, in the 
Supper, only after an heavenly and spiritual manner." In this 
all theologians agree ; it proves, therefore, nothing against any 
particular section of them. The words " given" and " taken," 
as has been often observed, would appear, as far as they go, 
to imply, rather than disavow, the Objective Presence''. 

But the sentence in the Article chiefly relied on by those 
who shrink from the letter of Scripture, is the following : 
" The mean whereby the Body of Christ is received and 
eaten in the Supper is faith." Yet, on a little consideration, 
one might perhaps not unreasonably ask, how a person be- 
Jieving the Real Presence of both parts in the Sacrament, 
could more accurately express his belief in the manner of 
receiving the Inward Part, than by adopting this very sen- 
tence ? The point will be clearer if we supply what there 
was no need for the Article to mention — the manner of 
receiving the outward part. "As the mean whereby the 
Bread is received and eaten is the mouth, so the mean 
whereby the Body of Christ is received and eaten in the 
Supper is faith." What shadow of denial of the Real Pre- 
sence is here ? 

Besides, we ought to know what the word "faith" means 
in this sentence. Does it denote the general qualification 
for worthy receiving, — that "lively faith" which is men- 
tioned in the following Article? — or does not the tenor of the 
sentence rather lead us to think of a special act of faith in 
the reality and blessedness of that which is being received ? 
even as it is required of persons to be baptized, to have 
" Faith whereby they stedfastly believe the promises of God 
made to them in that Sacrament." And the corresponding 
phrases in S. Augustine, so often quoted in this argument, 

i> Compare the letter of Bishop 'only' did not exclude the Presence of 

Guest, who penned the Article, to Lord Christ's Body fi-om the Sacrament, 

Burleigh ; ap. Pusey on " The Ileal but only the grossness and sensibleuess 

IVcsence," p. 203. " I told him [Bi- in the receiving thereof.' 
shop Cheney] plainly, that this word 

The Presence not denied in Article XXIX. 155 

import as much : "This is the work of God, that ye believe Chap. IV . 
on Him whom He hath scut. This, then, is to eat, not that 
meat which perisheth, but that which remaiueth to eternal 
life. "Wliy make ready the teeth and belly ? Believe, and 
thou hast eaten'." As if our Lord should say to them, " In 
that of which I am speaking to you, the eating of that life- 
giving meat," (which, as it appears afterwards, is the Inward 
Part of the Lord's Supper,) "your work, or rather God's 
work in you, is simply to believe : He will take care of the 
rest. Bodily eating is for this ordinary Bread; as for the 
Bread which coraeth down from heaven, ' believe, and thou 
hast eaten.' " In these and the like passages, it is clear that 
beneficial receiving alone is spoken of, and that the proper 
instrument by which men so receive is their faith in Him so 
giving Himself to them. There is not the smallest appear- 
ance of S. Augustine's sympathizing with those among the 
Reformers who regarded the participation of the Redeemer's 
Body and Blood as ordinarily separable from the grace of 
the Eucharist, any more than there is any instance in Holy 
Scripture of such eating and drinking being spoken of ex- 
cept in connection with that Sacrament. And next to Holy 
Scripture, S. Augustine is plainly the authority most de- 
ferred to in the Articles on this subject. We are not, there- 
fore, likely to be far wrong if we take the twenty-eighth 
Article as insisting, not on faith in general, but on faith in 
the particular grace of the Sacrament. " Believe that thou 
receivest Him/' (so we seem to be told,) "and thou hast 

Concerning the twenty-ninth Article : the safest way is to 
understand it as interpreting S. John in the same sense fvs 
S. Augustine does, whom it quotes'^. But if we took it, as 
the Judgment does, to deny all eating, in any sense, of the 
Holiest Tiling by the wicked and unworthy, not even so 
could it be inferred that the framers of that Article shrank 
from the doctrine of a Real Objective Presence in respect 
of the good and faithful : nor does the Article, so under- 
stood, contradict the notion which has commended itself to 

' In Joan.Ev. tr.xxv.l2 : cf.xxvi.l2. '' What that sense is, Dr. Pusey and 

i Cf. S. Mark xi. 24. Mr. Grucber have shewn. 

156 The Court inconsistent with itself in the Sentence. 

Chap. IV. some, that there is at first a Real Presence to all, but that 
it is withdrawn when the unbeliever communicates. 

Are we not, on the whole, justified in inferring that the 
Ileal Objective Presence is not impugned by the general 
tenor of these two Articles ? Therefore, neither is adoration 
impugned as implying the Real Objective Presence. 

§ 20. The question then comes back upon us. What could 
have been the Censors' ground for saying that it is im- 
pugned? May it be pardonable, if one venture to suggest 
that even good and sensible men, giving way to a panic, are 
not likely to be good reasoners; that something like this 
happened to the authors of this sentence ; that they hastily 
caught up, as people do in a panic, that which in fact is 
a weapon from the Roman armoury, viz. that the Article does 
in such sense deny any reception by the wicked, as virtually 
to deny the Real Objective Presence also ; and then know- 
ing that adoration at least of the heart is inseparable from 
belief in such Presence, they considered it as condemned by 
the two Articles taken together? Whether this, however, 
or any other, was the process by which they arrived at their 
conclusion, it is impossible not to feel deep regret that it 
was not distinctly stated, according to the ordinary practice 
of ecclesiastical as well as civil courts in this country, more 
especially in cases involving heavy penalties. And in this 
case, the court being eminently, by its composition, a court 
Christian, it would not perhaps have been irrelevant or un- 
fatherly, had some words been spoken to relieve the con- 
sciences of the many, who have hitherto practised unquestion- 
ing adoration, without a thought of being undutiful to the 
Church ; and to protect them from the troublesome scruples 
and bewildering imaginations, doctrinal, metaphysical, or 
ecclesiastical, which the bare authoritative utterance of such 
a sentence would be likely to awaken in them; and that 
at a time when their hearts most earnestly long to sur- 
render themselves to their Saviour without reserve or in- 

§ 21. Or, it may be, the condemnation was meant to apply 
not so much to the requirement of worship, as to the phrase 
by which the Object of worship had been defined, — " the Body 

The Phrase, " Under the Form of Bread and Wine" 157 

and Blood of Christ under the form of Bread and Wine." Chap. IV. 
But if so, then, according to a rule which has entered largely 
into this very judgment, it was specially incumbent upon the 
Censors to make known the grounds of their censure. In 
denying the Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ to be 
eaten by the wicked, they have laid great stress — indeed, the 
main stress of their cause — on the title of Art. XXIX. They 
have refused, it would appear, to consider the explanation 
which has been offered, and sustained by a large array of 
authorities, to the effect that the phrase, " eat Christ's Body," 
is a theological phrase capable of more than one interpreta- 
tion ; that is, that it has more than one " literal and gram- 
matical sense," and that the body of the Article itself fixes 
the title to that meaning which would justify the defendant. 
All this they entirely ignored, and grounded a sentence of 
deprivation on a statement, of which all that could be fairly 
said was, that it was contrary to one of two literal and gram- 
matical interpretations of one single phrase. By this, at any 
rate, they would seem to bind themselves to be very " literal 
aad grammatical" in all their proceedings, and not to condemn 
the other expression, "present under the form of Bread and 
Wine," (which is, in other words, "really and objectively pre- 
sent, as the imvard part of tlie Sacrament,") unless they could 
shew some "literal and grammatical" conti'adiction of it in 
the Articles. I do not see how this can be denied, without 
maintaining one rule for the prosecution and another for the 
defence. No such contradiction has yet been distinctly al- 
leged. If any exist, the learned assessors will be only doing 
themselves justice in pointing it out. 

§ 22. And more than this. There is among the Thirty- 
nine Articles one which was originally specified in the charge 
against Archdeacon Denison, but the mention of it was after- 
wards, for whatever reason, withdrawn; I mean the thirty- 
fifth, which re-asserts the general doctrine of the Book of 
Homilies. Now the condemned phrase (" under the form of 
Bread and Wine") is taken, as every one knows, from the 
Book of Homilies ; not, indeed, from the body of any homily, 
but from one of two authorized titles of the fifteenth homily 
of the second book, — authorized, undoubtedly, one as much 
as the other; and therefore, according to all common rules 

158 It does not imply the Erroi's disavowed by our Church ; 

Chap. IV. of construction, the second to be taken as at least reconcile- 
able with the first; which notion is further confirmed by the 
description prefixed to the body of Queen Elizabeth's Homi- 
lies : " The second part of Homilies, on such matters as were 
promised and entituled in the former part of Homilies." 

And on comparing the two titles, few persons, I think, 
would doubt that the one was meant to be equivalent to the 
other. The first is " the due receiving of the Body and Blood 
of Christ under the form of Bread and Wine ," the second, 
*' the worthy receiving and reverent esteeming of the Sacra- 
ment of the Body and Blood of Christ." " The Body and 
Blood of Christ under the form of Bread and Wine" is thus 
set before us as something inseparable from "the Sacrament 
of the Body and Blood of Christ," — as, indeed, it must be, 
according to the account of a sacrament in the Catechism. 

And surely this — being part of the definition of the Eucha- 
rist — is a main point of Christian doctrine. If it be so wrong, 
so ungodly and unwholesome, as this condemnation supposes 
it, how can it be true that the Homilies, taken generally, 
''contain a godly and wholesome doctrine?" 

One way, indeed, is conceivable, in which we might be 
forced to admit the hypothesis of the phrase having been 
left by mistake ; i. e, if the homily so entitled contained any 
statement clearly repugnant to the first title. But no such 
statement ever has, or can be, produced from this or any 
other homily. 

No doubt the formula, " Sub specie Panis et Vini,"is used 
by the Roman Catholics ; but it is also used by the Lutherans, 
and from them, probably, it w^as adopted by Ridley, whose 
sentiments on Christ's Presence in the Eucharist are known 
to have differed materially from Calvin's '. They were formed, 
confessedly, on " The Book of Bertram the Priest," who de- 
scribes the holy Sacrament thus : " Sub velamento corporei 
Panis, corporeique Vini, spirituale Corpus, spiritualisque San- 
guis existit m." " Sub velamento :" the phrase is equivalent 
to "under the form." That Bertram meant by it to express 
a spiritual, not a carnal or material. Presence, is plain by his 
saying, " Panis ille vinumque figurate Christi Corpus et San- 
guis existit "" ;" and, " Secundum visibilem creaturara corpus 
• See Remains of A. Knox, ii. 16 1, 106. '" Book of Bertram, p. 24, cd. 16SG. 

especially not that of Carnal Presence. 159 

pascunt, juxta vero potentioris virtutera substantise mentes Chap. IV. 
fideliurn et pascunt et sanctificant." That he did not receive 
Transubstantiation is also plain ; for his words are, " Se- 
cundum creaturarum substantiam, quod fuerunt ante conse- 
crationem, hoc et postea consistunt." Bertram, therefore, 
holding Christ^s presence under the form of Bread and Wine, 
did yet contradict the same two errors which the Reformed 
Church of England warns her children against. 

And however coarsely Luther himself, and some of the 
Lutherans, might sometimes express themselves, there can 
be no reasonable doubt that the very same is the true mean- 
ing of the Confession of Augsburgh, teaching (Art. X.) that 
"with the Bread and Wine, the Body and Blood are truly 
present in the Lord's Supper, and truly given to those who 
eat there; and they censure such as teach otherwise." 

Neither Ridley, then, nor the Homilies, nor such as adopt 
their language, can fairly be charged with holding the gross, 
carnal idea which was afterwards imputed to them under the 
name of Consubstantiation : which idea seems to be censured 
by implication in our twenty-eighth Article, where the Body 
of Christ is said to be "given, taken, and received in the 
Supper, only after a heavenly and spiritual manner ;" and at 
the end of the Liturgy, where we disclaim adoration of any 
corporal Presence of Christ. Well may we, with the whole 
Church rightly understood, condemn and disavow any notion 
of such a Presence. But to condemn the phrase, " under 
the form of Bread and Wine," would be condemning, first. 
Bishop Ridley, and the rest who sanctioned the First Book 
of Homilies, and, through them, the Confession of Augs- 
burgh, and the whole body of orthodox Lutherans. 

Not in this present instance only has mischief been done 
by a vague dread of Consubstantiation, hurrying people on 
to erroneous censures, which would have been spared, had 
they given themselves more time to consider either the true 
meaning of the words censured, or the extent to which the 
censure would reach. 

§ 23. Thus, in default of all explanation from those who 
decided the other day that Eucharistical worship is contrary 
to the Articles, endeavour has been made to trace, as ex- 

160 Amount of material Error in the Sentence. 

CiiAr. IV. actly as one might by conjecture, the possible ground of that 
decision, and to shew that it is as little warranted by tlie 
Prayer-book, Articles, and Homilies, as by Holy Scripture 
and Primitive Antiquity. The survey, such as it is, will per- 
haps have sufficiently explained the deep and intense anxiety 
which was felt by many, at the first promulgation of the 
sentence, for the integrity of the Catholic doctrine of the 
Holy Eucharist, — an anxiety which must continue to be felt, 
until it shall please God to put in the hearts of those who 
have spiritual authority, either to withdraw that condemna- 
tion, or so to limit it that it shall not seem to contradict the 
Real Objective Presence. 

Por assuredly it is not, as it now stands, a mere question 
of posture. Were that all, there is not one who denies the 
full right of every particular or national Church to choose 
among the several postures of adoration, and to forbid the 
use of either or all of them on this or that particular occa- 
sion, when it might cause scandal or confusion; just as 
English Churchmen are left, as it seems, to their own cha- 
rity and discretion, whether or no to recognise by outward 
gesture the Presence which they must believe (unless they 
deny altogether the validity of the Roman Sacraments) when 
they meet with any of the customary solemn processions, 
or on other occasions not unfamiliar to travellers. 

The question, it must be repeated, is not " how or tvhen 
we are to adore," but " whether it is lawful at all to adore 
Christ as the Inward Part of the Sacrament?" That this 
is the real issue we were officially told by the Archbishop's 
principal lay assessor, when he pronounced a certain sen- 
tence quoted from Bishop Andrewes to be a " reitera- 
tion" of what had been condemned before : and neither 
his Grace himself, nor any of his clerical assessors, did 
either then or at any time since intimate any dissent from 
the statement. 

Therefore, but for a providential flaw in the form of pro- 
ceeding, it would stand at present before the world as the ju- 
dicial sentence of the Archbishop of Canterbury, that it is 
contrary to the Articles to say, " Christ Himself, the Thing 
signified of the Sacrament, is to be worshipped iu and with 

Present legal Position of the Clergy. IGl 

the Sacrament ;" and that any beneficed person so teaching Chap. V. 
and worshipping must incur deprivation. Now of course no 
one supposes that the Archbishop and the clergy sitting with 
him would deny that Christ is to be worshipped, and with 
special worship where He is especially present. It remains, 
therefore, that they meant to deny any such especial Pre- 
sence in the Eucharist as should claim special worship and 
homage ; and what is that but denying altogether any Real 
Presence after consecration? Consequently, believers in that 
Presence — not only in its truth, but in its essential import- 
ance — must apprehend a vital doctrine of the Gospel to have 
been put in jeopardy by this decision. It is a sad thing to 
say, but is it not too true ? 



§ 1. There remains the very serious practical inquiry, how 
the position of persons so believing within the Church of 
England was or is afifected by these proceedings. I call it a 
" practical" inquiry, because, although that particular case is 
at an end, the points involved in it may at any time be mooted 
in some other instance : and in the present unhappy state of 
parties, are too likely to be so. It is, indeed, two questions in 
one ; for it may be taken as relating either to our legal or to 
our moral and spiritual position. With regard to the former, 
it is useless now to speculate. We can but leave it to receive 
solution, if need be, from the proper authorities in due course 
of law. But should it again arise, and be finally decided as it 
was the other day in the Court of Arches, then (as the judg- 
ment on appeal will be legally binding at least on the dioce- 
san courts of England,) the other question will arise, How 
shall we stand, morally and spiritually, as clergymen bound 
by certain Articles, when the legal interpreters of those 
Articles have declared them to be, by implication, contrary 
and repugnant to a tenet which we hold as a vital doctrine 
of the Gospel ? 

§ 2. But before going on to this, it may be worth while to 


162 The Articles , how far made the sole Test of Doctrine. 

Chap. V. say one word more on the comparatively immaterial question 
of our legal position. Speaking under correction, I believe 
that, as a matter of course, until the legislature decree other- 
wise, the decision of the highest court of appeal rules all 
subsequent decisions. Therefore every clergyman from that 
day forward will understand, that if he be known in any way 
to hold the duty of worshipping Christ, "in and with the 
Sacrament, as the Thing signified of the Sacrament,'' his 
place and benefice in the Church of England will be at the 
mercy of any one choosing to exhibit articles against him. 
And since it is known that there is a numerous and powerful, 
and in these matters (may we not say it?) an unscrupulous 
section of the Church, watching to see whom they may take 
at such an advantage ; there can be small doubt, humanly 
speaking, what will become in a few generations, not only of 
the custom of adoration, but of the doctrine inseparable from 
it — the doctrine of the Real Presence among us. 

Again ; it is doubtless true that legally the act of Eliza- 
beth, under which the judgment has been obtained, would 
not, taken by itself, constitute the Articles the sole test of 
doctrine. But those who have expressed a fear of such a 
result were thinking not of that act only, but of its effect 
taken conjointly with the Gorham decision. The latter 
seemed to rule that nothing should be held obligatory, un- 
less it were affirmed in the Articles. The former, that no- 
thing, however plainly affirmed in Holy Scripture, or the 
Prayer-book, should be so much as allowed, if it appeared at 
first sight contrary to the Articles; assuming thereby that 
that one document had nothing in it ambiguous, nothing 
equivocal, nothing which could need to be interpreted by 
comparison with other documents of co-ordinate authority. 
What more could be desired by any one who might wish to 
escape from Holy Scripture and the Prayer-book, and make 
the Thirty-nine Articles our sole standard ? If a man were 
minded, for instance, to deny the Inspiration of Scripture, 
the Eternity of hell-torments, or the personal existence of 
the Evil Spirit, he would have only to point out that they 
are not affirmed in the Articles. If he wished to deny 
S. James's doctrine of Justification by works, or to enforce 

Case of the Clergy, as bound to obey the Laiv. 163 

Calvin*s doctrine of absolute Predestination, he might have Chap. V. 
his way by quoting the letter of the eleventh and seven- 
teenth Articles. 

If it be really the mind of the present English Church so 
materially to narrow her pale of admissible doctrine on one 
side, and enlarge it on the other; would it not be wiser, 
better, more seemly, to do it once for all, deliberately, and 
in the face of day, that all men might know what themselves 
and others are about, rather than go on in this unhappy, 
vexatious course; watching for seasons when an adversary 
happens to be unwary or unpopular, or when sympathy may 
be hoped for from a prime minister or a judge; and dis- 
posing of deep and high points of theology by a side-wind, 
et quasi aliud agendo ? 'Ev Be ^ae\ koL okecrcroVy eirei vv rot 
evaSev ovt(09. 

§ 3. But be that as it may, the question will remain for 
individuals, supposing the sentence confirmed. What ought 
they to do, who have gone on hitherto believing the Real 
Presence, and adoring accordingly, in no uudutifulness to 
the English Church, but in full conviction that they were 
but carrying out what they had learned in the Catechism 
and Communion Office? They cannot give up their con- 
victions, they cannot cease to believe and adore, in defer- 
ence to a mere affirmation, even from the highest human 
authority, the reasons (for whatever cause) being withheld ; 
nor yet upon such reasons as have hitherto been alleged. 
Neither is the matter an abstract one, such as one may 
withdraw his mind from, and exclude it from his teach- 
ing, or even in a way suspend his belief of it, in a dutiful 
wish to obey those whom God's providence has set over him. 
Such cases are conceivable ; perhaps (e. g.) a person's view of 
predestination may admit of being so treated ; but whether 
or no Jesus Christ the Son of Man is specially present in the 
Holy Sacrament, as the Inward Part thereof, and whether to 
worship Him accordingly or no, — these are thoughts which 
cannot be put by ; they come before the mind and heart as 
often as you go to His altar. And if you believe them to be 
essential parts of Christian truth and duty, you must teach 
them to all entrusted to your care. 

M 2 

164 We are not disloyal in keeping our Posts ; 

Chap. V. The only question will be, Is a person continuing so to 
believe and teach bound to resign any privileges which he 
may enjoy in virtue of his subscription to the Articles? or is 
he free in conscience to retain them as long as he can, if he 
consider it otherwise his duty to do so ? 

Now this question seems to resolve itself into another and 
a more general inquiry. It being allowed that human laws 
bind the conscience of the subject to obey them according to 
the intention of the legislature, if not contrary to the law of 
God ; we are to consider whether the like submission is ab- 
solutely due to the judicial interpretations of the same laws? 
For example : certain goods of foreign manufacture are, or 
were lately, prohibited in this country, and no doubt it was 
a moral duty to abstain from importing what were unques- 
tionably known to be goods of that description ; but let us 
suppose that in a particular instance a question had arisen, 
whether such and such a fabric came under that description, 
and the judges had determined it in the affirmative, while 
the merchant, from his technical knowledge, was thoroughly 
convinced of the negative; was he bound in conscience to 
abstain from importing the like in time to come ? or might 
he innocently risk the transaction if he thought it worth 
while? Other imaginary cases might be put, but this one 
will be sufficient to explain what is meant. 

Now, as I can hardly conceive any one imagining that the 
tradesman in this instance was morally guilty of breaking 
the law, so neither, or rather much less, would the same guilt 
seem to attach to a clergyman retaining his cure, if he could, 
after his opinions and teaching had been condemned, sup- 
posing him sincerely and seriously convinced before God that 
the condemnation proceeded on a mistake in the law. It 
would be a question, not of right or wrong, but of expedient 
or inexpedient ; and surely, in the event we are now contem- 
plating, (may God avert it ! but if it should happen,) truth 
and charity, and loyalty and devotion, the honour of God In- 
carnate, and the salvation of the souls of our brethren — all 
the motives that can be imagined going to make up the 
highest expediency — would render it the duty of every Catho- 
lic clergyman to abide in his place until he was forcibly ex- 

Are we incurring the Taint of Heresy? 165 

pelled from it, either by a like prosecution, ending in like Chap V. 
manner, or from inability to bear up against the worry and 
expense of the proceeding. 

If any misgiving occurred to a right-minded person in 
adopting this course, it would probably be on the ground 
that there was some appearance of breach of trust, in respect 
of those under whose authority he was taking the benefit of 
his subscription, conscious all the while that he was sub- 
scribing in a different sense from what they might be willing 
to allow. But this scruple might at once be met, by taking 
care to give sufficient notice of your mind and purpose to 
the persons concerned, and so enabling them, if they thought 
proper, to put you also on your trial '^. 

§ 4. So much may suffice with respect to our legal diffi- 
culties : but there are others more serious, connected with our 
ecclesiastical position. We know too well, by very sad expe- 
rieuce, that some earnest persons regard the Church of Eng- 
land as distinctly committed by the sentences of that which 
may happen practically at a given time to be her supreme 
Court of Appeal. So that if the late judgment against 
adoration (e. g.) had been unhappily affirmed by her Majesty 
in Council, there would have been, according to them, no 
help for it : the Church by law established would have 
denied the faith, and believers must have sought another 
home where they might. 

Now many will feel as if this saying refuted itself by its 
very extravagance. To suppose that for one sentence, once 
promulgated and enacted, by a court constituted as that of 
which we are speaking, every one's faith and practice re- 
maining just what it was before, by far the greater number 
of our communicants knowing nothing at all of the matter, 
not even aware that there was any trial going on, and ready, 
for aught any one can tell, to disclaim the doctrine implied 
in the sentence, if it were duly explained to them, from the 
very bottom of their hearts ; — to suppose, I say, that by one 
such decision all these believing multitudes were fairly turned 
out of God's Church on earth, and left with the heathen to 
the forlorn liope of incurable ignorance, — all this would be in- 
" See note at the conclusion. 

166 The Sentence does not commit our Church : 

CuAv. V. tolerable, nay, impossible, unless some unquestionable word 
of some infallible authority were shewn for it. Compare it 
with the known dealings of the Almighty towards either 
Churches or individuals. See how it looks when judged of 
by the analogy of the faith. No doubt there are fearful in- 
stances of one person falling in a moment, and drawing 
after him in ruin thousands, themselves at the time uncon- 
scious, or not yet existing. We do not forget Adam in Para- 
dise, nor Esau selling his own and his children's birthright, 
nor Saul when Samuel turned away from him, nor Jeroboam 
when he made Israel to sin ; nor the several ringleaders of 
heresy and schism among Christians, and how their unhappy 
followers were cast out with them ; nor (in a word) how the 
fathers' sins are by the Divine law visited on the children : 
and it is, of course, possible that any particular instance of 
transgression and misleading may prove to be one more 
in that list; but who at the time shall declare it so ? Surely 
none may do that with authority but the Judge Himself; 
and when He has done so. He has constantly done it by 
signs unequivocal — miracles or prophecies, or the consenting 
voice of His Church ; and even then not until after long en- 
durance and repeated warnings. But for private Christians 
to take upon themselves to pass that sentence, — which a man 
would in effect be passing, if he forsook the Church's com- 
munion for any such proceeding as is now dreaded, — this 
would seem not unlike the error of those who were warned 
that they knew not what manner of spirit they were of. One 
mortal sin, we know, deliberately consented to, is enough to 
destroy a soul ; but we know also how long and how tenderly 
He whose name is Merciful as well as Jealous has borne with 
whole years of transgression and has not destroyed ; we know 
that His mercy is over all His works; that it extends to the 
thousandth generation, while He is said to visit iniquity upon 
children only and children's children. The antecedent pro- 
bability therefore is, in every case, until the Church has ex- 
amined and ruled it, that the error complained of, however 
real and deadly in itself, does not bring such a taint of heresy 
over those communicating with its professors, as to separate 
them, ipso facto, from the Church, 

to do thai there must be fresh Legislation. 167 

§ 5. Secondly, iu this particular case, the error coming Chap. V. 
out not in the shape of a synodical or legislative enactment, 
but of a judicial decision ; as it is no part of the law of the 
land, of force to bind the conscience of the subjects, so is it 
no part of the law of the Church, (the provincial Church, of 
course, I mean,) with power to bind the conscience of its 
members. It betrays, indeed, a sad want of discipline, and 
threatens and forebodes an eventual corruption of doctrine ; 
but it leaves the formularies of the Church and the faith of 
its present members just where they were. If any one doubt 
this, let him consider one or two parallel cases. Suppose, 
from some epidemical delusion, (we have seen such things 
at no great distance,) it had become morally impossible to 
obtain a verdict of guilty against a murderer in a particular 
country — would any one think of laying it to the charge of 
that country that it had no law against murder ? Or what 
if, at any time, by connivance, corruption, or indolence, it 
should appear that the slave-trade is still being carried on 
in English vessels, or slavery practised in some English 
colony — would it be fair to say that slavery and the slave- 
trade had again become part of the laws and institutions of 
England ? Or again, — to put a case nearer the actual one, — 
if we imagine the days of Arian ascendancy returned, and, by 
some such combination as we read of under Constantius, a 
judicial body formed which had a leaning that way, and skill 
more or less to carry with it the popular feeling, and thus a 
sentence obtained against orthodoxy : would such a decision, 
or a hundred such, prove the English Church to be in its 
essence really Arian? They would certainly cause great 
anxiety lest it should quickly become such ; but instead of 
their affording any excuse or reason for separation, every 
lieart that was truly loyal to our Saviour would assuredly feel 
called on to cling to its profession the more earnestly, and 
take away the reproach from Israel ; and if any made that 
state of things an argument for withdrawing himself and 
joining some other Christian body, how very sure should we 
feel that he was cither indulging temper, or but availing 
himself of the first excuse he could find for carrying into 
effect what for other reasons he had before determined on ! 

1 68 The main Difficulty of the Case. 

Chap. V. The matter may be put in this light. Casuists are agreed 
that the proper authorities to determine the meaning of 
documents subscribed to, are the same by whom the sub- 
scription is enforced ; i. e., in this case, the Church and State 
of England. There can be no reasonable doubt that when 
these bodies last legislated on the subject, in 1661, they 
meant to receive subscriptions in the sense now condemned. 
If they have changed their mind and will, let them declare 
it in the only way in which it is competent for them to do 
so ; namely, by fresh legislation corrective of the former. 
Until they shall have so done, they must be taken to be of 
the same mind as before, and the old interpretation to stand 
good. Any court of justice interpreting the document on 
any other principle narrower than this, must be presumed 
to be mistaken, and cannot bind the conscience by its de- 
cision. Nothing can do that, short of the voice of the le- 
gislature, distinctly enacting the new interpretation. The 
synod or convocation so decreeing may bind us as Church- 
men ; the parliament as Englishmen ; until they have spoken 
we are free. 

§ 6. It would appear, then, that by the decision, simply 
as a decision, we really need not feel ourselves or our Church 
in any degree bound or committed. It may be a great 
scandal and a bad precedent, but no man is pledged as a 
Churchman or as a clergyman to abide by it, and therefore 
no man need think of retiring on account of it. But there is 
one circumstance connected with it which yet requires grave 
consideration ; it presents, indeed, as far as I see, the only 
real difficulty of the case, in the view of a conscientious 
Churchman, knowing and wishing to hold by the rules of 
antiquity. That circumstance is the share which the Metro- 
politan has had, and is likely to have, in the whole transac- 
tion ; and the difficulty which it raises is incurred already : 
we have not to wait for it until some fresh appeal shall 
have been dealt with : we have been burdened with it ever 
since the first solemn declaration of the Court at Bath in 
the case of Archdeacon Denison. It is simply this : that 
if there be any soundness in the statements and argu- 
ments set down a])ove, the proposition of the Court touch- 

The Sentence heretical by the Statute of Elizabeth. 169 

ing worship in Holy Communion would seem, even by the Chap. V. 
existing law of the English Church, to be heretical, or verg- 
ing on heresy; and of course the question might occur, 
Can Christians knowingly go on in communion with a spiri- 
tual superior who has publicly so committed himself, and not 
be partakers of the ill ? This question I should answer, 
without hesitation, in the affirmative, and that for reasons 
strictly ecclesiastical. I will endeavour to explain, as briefly 
and clearly as I can, the grounds both of the difficulty and 
of the solution. 

For the prima facie suspicion of heresy : the measure and 
extent of that evil, as is well known, are legally determined 
among us by the statute, 1 Eliz. i. 56, where it is ruled that 
persons commissioned by the Crown to determine ecclesias- 
tical causes " shall not in any wise have authority or power 
to order, determine, or adjudge any matter or cause to be 
heresy, but only such as heretofore have been determined, 
ordered, or adjudged to be heresy, by the authority of the 
canonical Scriptures, or by the first four general Councils, or 
any of them, or by any other general Council wherein the 
same was declared heresy by the express and plain words of 
the said canonical Scriptures, or such as hereafter shall be 
ordered, judged, or determined to be heresy by the high 
court of parliament of this realm, with the assent of the 
clergy in their convocation;" and "it hath been since gene- 
rally holden, that although the High Commission court was 
abolished by the statute 16 Chas. I. c. 11, yet those rules 
will be good directions to ecclesiasdcal courts in relation to 
heresy °." 

Now the third (Ecumenical Council, that of Ephesus, 
A.D. 431, gives the full authority of the Church to the fol- 
lowing paragraph of the remonstrance sent to Nestorius a 
little before by S. Cyril and the Synod of Alexandria p. 

" And there is another point which we must of necessity 
add ; how that, setting forth the death after the flesh of the 
Only-begotten Son of God, that is, Jesus Christ, and con- 
fessing His resurrection from the dead, and ascension into 
the heavens, we celebrate in the Churches the unbloody 

" Burn's Eccl. Law, ii. 277. 5th ccL f § vii. up. llouth, Opusc. ii. 25. 

170 The Real Presence distinctly set forth 

Chap. V. Sacrifice. And thus we draw nigli to the mystical Eucha- 
ristSj and are sanctified by becoming partakers of the holy 
Flesh and the precious Blood of Christ the Saviour of us all. 
And not as common Flesh do we receive it, (God forbid !) 
nor yet as that of a Man sanctified, and united unto the 
Word as having one and the same dignity, or as having re- 
ceived God to dwell in Him, but as truly life-giving, and 
the very Flesh of the Word Himself. For being, as God, 
in His nature, Life, in that He became One with His own 
Flesh, He manifested it to be life-giving. So that, although 
He say to us, * Verily, verily I say unto you, Except ye eat 
the Flesh of the Son of 3Ian, and drink His Blood,' — we are 
not to infer that it (like the rest) is the flesh of a man, one 
of those who are such as we are ; (for how shall the flesh of 
a man be life-giving, according to its own nature ?) but that 
it has truly become the very own Flesh of Him who for our 
sake both became and is entitled as well a Son as a Man''.'' 

Here it is plain, first, that the Council, adopting the 
phraseology of the Liturgy then in use at Alexandria, gives 
distinct sanction to the doctrine contained in that and all 
the ancient Liturgies, of the unbloody Sacrifice ofl'ered in 
all Churches continually. Next, that it attributes our par- 
ticipation of Christ's Body and Blood, and our consequent 
sanctification, not to the whole action, including the prayers 
and the rest, but to that which we do when we draw nigh to 
that which has been sacramentally blessed, and partake of it. 
Thirdly, that what we so draw nigh to receive and to partake 
of is not " common flesh," (God forbid !) but the " very own 
Flesh of the Word, Who, as God, being by nature Life, be- 
cause He had made Himself one with His own Flesh, de- 
clared it to be life-giving." It is for those who deny the 
Keal Presence, and forbid adoration, to reconcile these say- 
ings, if they can, with their own views -, or else to shew some 
reason why they are not to be accounted so far heretical, ac- 
cording to the standard of heresy in the Church of England. 

§ 7. Consider, again, in connection with the foregoing, 
what follows, and observe how it is sanctioned ; it is not a 
statement made incidentally with a view to establish some- 

1 Kal vlov Koi avOpumov, Some false reading may be inspected. 

in the Decrees of Ephesus and Nicaa. 171 

thing else^ but was regarded by the (Ecumenical Council as Chap. v. 
so necessary a portion of our holy faith, that they guarded it 
with a special anathema^ : " If any one confess not the Flesh 
of the Lord to be life-giving, and the very own Flesh of the 
Word Himself who is of God the Father, but [regard it] as 
belonging to some other beside Him, however closely knit 
unto llim in dignity, — i. e. as having simply received an 
indwelling of the Deity, and not rather as life-giving, (to 
repeat the expression,) because it hath become the very 
own Flesh of the Word who hath power to quicken all 
things," (or ''to make all His living progeny V' — "let him 
be anathema." 

Observe that the life-giving quality is declared to depend 
on Its being " the very Flesh of the AVord who hath power 
to quicken all things ;" which implies that It is life to us not 
simply by Its merit as a Sacrifice on the Cross, but also by a 
real participation of It on our part. That Flesh, the Council 
means, which we approach and partake of in the Eucharist : 
no one, if he fairly compare the two passages, can avoid 
seeing this. Or if there were any doubt, it would be settled 
by the use of the same phrase, " the mystic Eucharist," in 
the following dictate of S. Cyril* : "I hear that some affirm 
that the mystical Eucharist avails not for sanctification, if 
any relic of it remain unto another day. But in so saying 
they are beside themselves. For Christ is not estranged 
[therefrom], neither will His holy Body admit alteration. 
But the power of the blessing, and the life-giving grace, do 
therein continue." The particular idea denoted by that word 
"objective" could scarce be set forth more distinctly. Can 
we help recognising it, when the same phrase, " mystic Eu- 
charist," is employed by the Council itself, over which the 
same S. Cyril was presiding, and in a document of which it 
is impossible to doubt that he was himself the author ? And 
this document has been in such sort adopted by the Church 
of England, as that any contradiction of it is enacted to be 
positive heresy. 

' Ibid. § xi. p. 32. • ^woyovup. 

* Ep. ad Calosyrium, Op. t. vii. 365 B. cd. Aubcrt. : cf. Cosin's Works, v. 

172 Presence and Sacrifice implied in the Nicene Canons. 

Chap. V. § 8. Nor may it be omitted that the first Nicene Council 
so far encourages the same notion, as not only to call the 
holy Eucharist in three several canons a Gift and an Offering, 
but also to imply that the giving and receiving of it is giving 
and receiving the Body of Christ". In the fifth canon they 
say, (and surely it is an enactment not unseasonable to be 
brought just now to our recollection,) — " At the provincial 
synod twice in the year inquire into the causes of the ex- 
communicate, lest some narrowness of mind or party-spirit, 
or other uncomfortable feeling, should have caused the ex- 
clusion ; and let one of the synods be holden before Lent, 
that all such ill-temper being done away, the Gift may be of- 
fered pure unto God." In the eleventh, certain penitents are 
directed, without offering, to communicate in the prayers 
only. The eighteenth runs thus : " It hath come before the 
holy and great synod, that in some places and cities the 
deacons give the Eucharist to the presbyters, a thing trans- 
mitted to us neither by canon nor custom, that such as have 
no authority to offer, should give to those who offer the Body 
of Christ. And of this, too, we have been informed, that 
certain of the deacons approach the Eucharist even before 
the Bishops. Wherefore, let all this be done away. . . . Let 
them receive the Eucharist in their own order, after the 
presbyters, at the hands either of the Bishop or the pres- 
byter.'^ Here is a distinct recognition of the Eucharist, as 
a sacrifice in which the Body of Christ is offered by Bishops 
and presbyters, and cannot be offered, in the same sense, by 
deacons and laymen. 

§ 9. No one who really reflects upon these sayings of the 
great councils, and is at all aware of the mass of undesigned 
testimony, diffusing itself through all antiquity, to the same 
effect, can doubt what sort of a decree would have been 
passed at Nicsea or Ephesus, had the doctrine of the Eucha- 
rist required synodical assertion in those days. But whether 
it be that the sacramental system does not require to be 
doctrinally known in order that its benefits may be received, 
any more than a person need be able to analyze what he eats 
and drinks before he can have it for " food and gladness," 
" Ap. Kouth, Script. Eccl. i. 373, 377, 381. 

Distinction of Material and Formal Heresy. 173 

or for other causes unknown to us ; it pleased Providence Chap. V. 
that the Church should enter on its era of sad division 
without any oecumenical decision primarily and directly 
pronounced on that subject. And therefore that portion of 
Christ's truth has not come down to us in distinct dogma- 
tical assertions guarded by anathemas, as the statements 
concerning the Trinity and Incarnation have. And it is 
consequently a more adventurous thing, and more largely 
partaking of the boldness of private judgment, to denounce 
any person as a heretic in respect of the former class of 
errors. It is not so plainly our duty to withdraw from his 
communion, as it would be if he had been distinctly ex- 
communicated by the Church. Materially he may be in 
heresy, but formally he is not yet so, — a distinction acknow- 
ledged by all theologians. "^Simple error is not heresy, 
without the additon, 1. of something in the matter of it, 
viz. that it take place in somewhat appertaining to the 
faith ; and, 2. of something in the erring person, i. e. perti- 
nacity, which alone makes a heretic. And this pertinacity 
arises from pride ; for it cometh of great pride, when a man 
prefers his own sense to the Truth Divinely revealed." And 
S. Augustine says, " Though men's opinion be false and per- 
verse, yet if they maintain it not with any obstinate wilful- 
ness ; and especially if it be one which they have not daringly 
and presumptuously engendered for themselves, but have re- 
ceived it of parents misled and fallen into error ; and if with 
careful anxiety they are seeking the truth, and are ready, 
as soon as they have found it, to receive correction; such 
are by no means to be accounted among heretics*." " Be- 
cause" (as Aquinas, quoting the passage, adds) " they have 
no choice, aipecnv, — no set purpose, — of contradicting the 
doctrine of the Church. In this way," (he proceeds to say,) 
" certain doctors appear to have differed, even in some things 
appertaining to the faith, which had not yet been determined 
by the Church. But after they had been determined by the 
authority of the universal Church, if any one kept obsti- 

» S. Tho. Aquhi. De Malo. qn. viii. * Ep. xliii. 1. 1. ii. p. 67. ed. Bened. 

Art. i. ad 7""""- t, xv. 165. ed. Venet. Antwerp, 1700. 

1 74 JVo sufficient Ground of Separation in this Case. 

Chap. V. nately resisting such an ordinance^ he would be accounted 
a heretic y." 

In the case before uSj the determination of the whole 
Church is so far less unequivocal than it might be, in that 
it has never been sealed with an anathema by an (Ecu- 
menical Council. Nor is there any proof of its having been 
so distinctly set before those who have denied it, that they 
can be rightly and at once accused of heretical pravity in 
resisting it. And even if they might, that were no excuse 
for separating from the hundreds of thousands of simple 
Christians who go on believing our Catechism and partaking 
of our Eucharist, with or without any definite perception of 
the doctrine of the Sacraments, vital though it be. " For" 
(to quote again the same author^) "the simple are not 
condemned as heretics for not knowing the Articles of the 
faith, but because they obstinately maintain things contrary 
to those Articles; which they would not do, if they had 
not their faith corrupted by heresy." 

' In sum : heretical as this or any similar decision may ap- 
pear to a well-instructed private Christian, it cannot, under 
existing circumstances, so taint with heresy those who pro- 
nounce or favour it, as to render it his duty to break com- 
munion with them, and with all, sound or unsound in faith, 
who abide in the same body Avith them. It might and would 
be his duty, had they been pronounced heretics by sufficient 
authority ; but such is not now the case. For example : 
were there now a Chrysostom or an Aquinas in the Roman 
Church, he might perchance upon good grounds seriously 
apprehend that the recent decree touching the Immaculate 
Conception of the Blessed Virgin does in fact promulgate a 
material heresy, and that a true (Ecumenical Council, were 
such an one ever to meet and decide upon that doctrine, 
would assuredly condemn it with an anathema. But it does 
not follow that a person so convinced ought to withdraw 
himself from the present Roman Catholic Connnunion. It 
might be his duty to make such a profession of his faith as 
would probably involve him in serious ecclesiastical penalties. 

y Sec. Secundao, qu. xi. art. ii. ad 3. t. xxii. 55. 
^ ' In 3 Sent. dist. 25. qu. 2. t. xi. 349. 

Course recommended to faithful Churchmen. 1 75 

But excommunication or deprivation incurred for conscience* Chap. V. 
sake is one thing, voluntary separation is quite another thing. 
The application to our own case is evident. 

There are, indeed, instances in Church history of private 
persons, lay or clerical, refusing to communicate with here- 
siarchs; as Eusebius of Doryteum, and others separating 
themselves from Nestorius, in the beginning of the move- 
ment which led to the Council of Ephesus : but they did not 
thereby break communion with the mass of believers at Con- 
stantinople ; and it seems not to have been so much from an 
apprehension of contracting the heretical taint from him, as 
because such separation was the received mode in that time 
of bringing such questions to a legitimate issue : as if one 
should say, "Either he must be excommunicated or I.'* It 
is no longer so, now that the holy discipline is so generally, 
alas ! in abeyance. 

§ 10. But is there, then, no remedy ? nothing for clergy- 
men or faithful laymen to do, who may feel with the whole 
Church for so many ages, that he who touches the doctrine 
of the Real Presence after Consecration, touches — to use 
sacred words — the very " apple of their eye," — whether it be 
by prohibition of worship or in any other way ? Yes, surely ; 
they have first and chiefly hearts to lift up night and day in 
prayer to the Most Holy Trinity, and they have the com- 
memorative Sacrifice of their Lord, in union with which 
to present their intercessions. As towards men they have 
tongues and pens, wherewith to protest and appeal; they 
have influence with more or fewer of their brethren; they 
have more or less substance, of which they may give to such 
as are suffering in any way for the same truth, (of whom 
not a few may be found, if they are well looked after). And 
in the present instance there is something yet more to be 
done, by all subscribers to the Articles at least; their pro- 
tests and appeals need not be mere words, as on other occa- 
sions the like may have appeared ; they may be so worded, 
and so publicly notified, as to make them liable to the same 
molestations and penalties which others for the same teach- 
ing have incurred". Such sayings are real doings, and if God 

• See note at the end of the book. 

176 Why Appeal is better than mere Protest. 

Chap. V. give them grace to utter them not rashly or in the way of 
challenge, but in the serious discharge of a painful duty, 
they may be blessed, if trouble ensue, with somewhat of the 
peculiar blessing of Christ's confessors. 

§ 11. One word more to point out why the way of Appeal 
as well as Protest is recommended. Protest, strictly speak- 
ing — i.e. a mere ' solemn declaration against a thing' — ap- 
pears to be the course of those who feel themselves aggrieved, 
but know of no legal remedy. But to appeal, taken also 
strictly, is to apply to another, a superior judge; it assumes 
that there is a grievance, but supposes also a constitutional 
corrective. A protest, as such, simply relieves the mind and 
conscience of those who take part in it ; an appeal adds to 
this a call upon certain others who are supposed to have 
power to redress the wrong. 

A protest in any juridical matter supposes the final authority 
to have spoken ; an appeal, of course, supposes the contrary. 

For which reason, among others, it seems matter of regret 
that the term protestant rather than appellant was adopted 
by those who, not intending schism, were cut off from the 
Church of Rome in the sixteenth century ; especially as the 
former term arose from the mere political accident of their 
representatives forming the minority in the Diet of Spires, 
1529, whereas the latter would have kept in mind Luther's 
appeal long before to a general council: a much more legi- 
timate and ecclesiastical ground to stand on, were it only 
that by simply protesting we do in some sense admit the 
paramount authority of Rome, by appealing we assert Rome 
herself to be under authority. 

However, in our own position — I mean, the position of 
English Churchmen — it seems to be of the very last im- 
portance that we should keep in our own minds, and be- 
fore all Christendom, the fact that we stand as orthodox Ca- 
tholics upon a constant virtual appeal to the oecumenical 
voice of the Church, expressed by the four great Councils, and 
by general consent in all the ages during which she continued 
undivided. And if that voice be disputed, is there any con- 
ceivable way of bringing the dispute to an issue, except only 
another true Oecumenical Council, when such by God's grace 

Otir Cfmrch, with the whole Church, under Appeal. 1 77 

may be had ? In the meantime, what can we do but con- Chap. V. 
tinue as we are in those points of our creed which other 
portions of the Church dispute, (unless we can be proved to 
be wrong :) not denying their life and catholicity, but main- 
taining our own, with submission to the whole Church ? The 
position may be called unreal or chimerical, but it is that 
which has been claimed for the Church of England by tw^o 
great men (to mention no more) whose names may as fairly 
as any be taken to represent the great schools or sections in 
this Church : Cranmer, when drawing towards his martyr- 
dom, and Bramhall in his exile, expressly asserting not sim- 
ply the truth, but the Catholicity of the English Church. 
And they were not either of them persons apt to take up 
Avith a chimerical, unreal view. 

Nay, the question may be well asked — much more easily 
asked than answered — whether, in the present divided state 
of Christendom, all who believe in the holy Catholic Church 
must not in reality, however unconsciously, be going on 
under this very appeal : at least, as against other claimants ? 
The Greek will say, " I go by the voice of the present Church 
diffusive ;" the Latin, " I go by the infallible voice of the See 
of S. Peter ;" the English, " I go by what has been held fun- 
damental every where, always, and by all :" but who is to de- 
cide between them, which of these measures is right? Yet 
all, one may hope, would agree to defer to the decision of 
such a Council as has been specified, were it obtainable. It 
is our common position ; and we in England have so much 
the more reason to acquiesce in it, as it does not force us 
to " unchurch" (as it is termed) either of the other great 
sections of Christendom, as they do mutually one another 
and us. 

Many a devout and loving heart, I well know, will rise up 
against this view of our case. To be on this conditional, 
temporary footing, will strike them as something so un- 
satisfactory, so miserably poor and meagre, so unlike the 
glorious vision which they have been used to gaze on of 
the one Catholic Apostolic Church. And poor, indeed, and 
disappointing it undoubtedly is, but not otherwise than 
as the aspect of Christianity itself in the world is poor 


178 The Present Decay to be submitted to. 

Chap. V. and disappointing, compared with what we read of it in 
the Gospel. 

Men will not escape from this state of decay by going 
elsewhere, though they may shut their eyes to the reality of 
it. Rather, whatever our position be in the Church, since 
God Almighty has assigned it to us for our trial, shall we 
not accept it and make the best of it, in humble confidence 
that according to our faith it will be to us ? 

This (please God) is the way of truth and peace, and 
therefore in it we may hope for a blessing; the rather, if it 
should prove to be the way of the Cross also. But to 
engage oneself, by a strong act of the will, to the whole 
system of a body new to us, not upon the proper evidence of 
that system, but because some in temporary authority among 
ourselves have denied our holy doctrine — this has something 
in it so very unreal, that it can hardly agree with truth ; 
and so like ill-temper, that it gives but a bad omen for 
peace. This is said, not from any special apprehension of 
such evil in store for us now, but from sad remembrance 
of what has occurred on former misinterpretations of our 
Church's doctrine. 

But we may hope for better things. If only two kinds of 
people would be patient with one another — those who have 
hitherto worshipped Christ in the Eucharist undoubtingly, 
and those who for vague fear of certain errors have shrunk 
from owning, even to themselves, that they worshipped Him ; 
if both sorts would pray and strive to be helped to take 
simply the plain words of Holy Scripture and the Church, as 
they do in respect of other mysteries ; — then this Sacrament 
of peace, ceasing to be to believers a Sacrament of contention, 
would be free to work its Lord's work among men : being, 
indeed, that wonder-working Fire which He came to kindle 
on the earth, of power to transform and subdue all to itself. 

Should what has been here set down contribute towards 
that blessed end but in one single instance, God be thanked ! 
it will not have been written in vain. 

Protest and Appeal. 1 79 

NOTE on c. v. § 3, 10, p. 163, 175. 

As an exemplification of the course here recommended, I subjoin, 1. a 
copy of a Protest and Appeal, occasioned by the Primate's Decision in 
the Court at Bath ; 2. a letter written in explanation of that paper by 
some of those who signed it, but suppressed at the time in deference to 
the scruples of others, who considered themselves implicated in it in a 
way which they thought unadvisable. 

1. Protest and Appeal. (1856.) 

" We, the undersigned. Priests of the one Catholic and 
Apostolic Church, called by God's Providence to minister in 
the Province of Canterbury, according to the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer, do hereby, in the Presence of Almighty God, 
and in humble conformity with the tenor of our Ordination 
Vows, as we understand them, make known and declare as 
follows : — 

1 . "We believe (in the words used in the Book of Homilies) 
that in the Holy Eucharist we " receive the Body and Blood 
of our Lord Jesus Christ under the form of bread and wine ;" 
and with Bishop Cosin, " that upon the words of Consecration, 
the Body and Blood of Christ is really and substantially 
present, and so exhibited and given to all that receive it ; 
and all this, not after a physical and sensual, but after an 
heavenly and incomprehensible manner;" of which state- 
ment, Bishop Cosin says, " it is confessed by all Divines." 

2. We believe, in the words of Bishop Ridley, " that the 
partakinge of Christ's Bodie and of His Bloude unto the 
faithfuU and godlie, is the partakinge and fellowship of life 
and of immortalitie. And, again, of the bad and ungodlief 
receivers, St. Paul plainlie saieth thus : ' He that eateth of 
this breade and drinketh of this cuppc unworthilie, he is 
guilty of the Bodie and Bloude of the Lord. He that eat- 
eth and drinketh unworthilie, eateth and drinketh his own 
damnation, because he esteemcth not the Lord's Bodie / that 

180 Protest and Appeal. 

is, he receiveth not tlie Lord's Bodie with the honoure whiche 
is due unto Hym/' Or with Bishop Poynet, " that the Eu- 
charist, so far as appertains to the nature of the Sacrament, 
is truly the Body and Blood of Christ, is a truly divine and 
holy thing, even when it is taken by the unworthy ; while, 
however, they are not partakers of its grace and holiness, 
but eat and drink their own death and condemnation/' 

3. We hold, with Bishop Andrewes, that " Christ Himself, 
the inward part of the Sacrament, in and with the Sacrament, 
apart from and without the Sacrament, wheresoever He is, is 
to be worshipped," With whom agrees Archbishop Bram- 
hall : "The Sacrament is to be adored, says the Council of 
Trent, that is, (formally,) ' the Body and Blood of Christ,' 
say some of your authors; we say the same: 'the Sacra- 
ment,' that is, ' the species of bread and wine,' say others ; 
that we deuy." 

We therefore being convinced, 

1. That the doctrine of the Real Presence of "the Body 
and Blood of our Saviour Christ under the form of Bread 
and Wine" has been uniformly held as a point of Faith in 
the Church from the Apostolic times ; and was accepted by 
General Councils, as it is also embodied in our own formu- 
laries ; — 

2. That the interpretation of Scripture most commonly 
held in the Church has been, that the wicked, although they 
can " in no wise be partakers of Christ," nor " spiritually eat 
His Flesh and drink His Blood," yet do in the Sacrament 
not only take, but eat and drink unworthily to their own 
condemnation the Body and Blood of Christ, which they do 
not discern ; — 

3. That the practice of worshipping Christ then and there 
especially present, after Consecration and before communi- 
cating, has been common throughout the Church : — 

• And moreover that the Thirty -nine Articles were intended 
to be, and are, in harmony with the Faith and Teaching of 
the Ancient Undivided Church ; — 

Do hereby protest earnestly against so much of the opinion 
of his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, in the case of 
Ditcher v. Denison, as implies, directly or iudirectly, that 

Protest with Explanation. 181 

such statements as we have cited above are repugnant to the 
doctrine of the Thirty-nine Articles ; — 

And we appeal from the said opinion, decision, or sentence 
of his Grace, in the first instance, to a free and lawful synod 
of the Bishops of the province of Canterbury ; and then, if 
need be, to a free and lawful syuod of all the Churches of our 
communion, when such by God's mercy may be had." 

2. Letter in explanation of the foregoing. 

"It having been given out that those who signed the 
Protest and Appeal against the recent decision on the Doc- 
triue of the Holy Eucharist may probably end in forming a 
Nonjuring Church, will you allow us to state through your 
paper, that we have no such intention or thought. The ob- 
ject of that declaration was to liberate our own consciences. 

We believe, in their most literal and fullest sense, every 
word of the Articles, on the ground of which Archdeacon 
Denison has been condemned. We cannot see how the 
doctrines for which he has been condemned can be fairly 
brought under the Articles. We are convinced, that they 
are points upon which the Church of England has not de- 
cided ; and that those who have condemned him, have 
proceeded on grounds foreign to the Articles. They have 
brought meanings into the Articles, not out of them. Still, 
since we believe that which the Archbishop and his Asses- 
sors have condemned as contrary to the Articles, it became 
matter of honesty to avow it. We are in a place of sacred 
Trust. If we voluntarily retire from our place, we betray 
our trust j if we continue in our place, saying nothing, we 
seem to betray it. Either way there is grievous scandal. 
The only course open to us is, publicly to apprise those in 
authority over us, that we cannot obey them in this, and to 
go on as before, leaving it to them to interfere with us, or 
no, as they may think fit. It was on this view of our duty 
that we signed that Paper, Our subscription to the Articles 
is honest in itself, for we believe them in the only sense of 
which we can see them to be capable. But we did not feel 

182 Conclusion. 

it honest to hold a behef which had been condemned as con- 
trary to the Articles^ and not to avow that we held it, and 
make ourselves liable to the consequences. 

The being of the Church of England we believe to be per- 
fectly unaffected by this decision, grievous as the result of it 
may be in respect of her well-being. The sentence of an 
Archbishop's Court may make an Act penal; but the sen- 
tence of one man cannot bind the conscience. Prosecution 
after prosecution can but deprive individuals. Nothing less 
than the voice of the Church can make any decision the 
judgment of the Church; and nothing but the judgment of 
the Church (in fact, a new " Article of Religion") can limit, 
as now proposed, the meaning of the present Articles. If 
the Church of England should will to condemn what hitherto 
she has not condemned, she must do it by a distinct Act. 

We know there are some who wish us to be removed. But 
we do not, please God, intend to do their work for them by 
withdrawing. Even should we be deprived, we should hope 
not to be silenced, nor degraded, nor excommunicated. 
Meantime, in full conviction that we teach only what the 
Church sanctions, or at any rate allows, we shall go on teach- 
ing as long as we are permitted to do so. Through God's 
good Providence we have had our several spheres of duty 
assigned to us. If it be His Will, He will help us cheerfully 
to exchange them for others. But it will be His doing, not 
ours. We hope to know His Will best, by waiting for it." 





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